Water is the most important part of life. It doesn't need to be described how important it is. Water pollution is one of the main important environmental issues. In this article, we are going to discuss water pollution, its causes, effects, and how we prevent it.
What is Water Pollution?
Water pollution occurs when the toxic substance is dissolved in water bodies like rivers, oceans, lakes, and many others. It reduces the quality of water.
The World Health Organization (WHO) states that polluted water is that water whose composition has been changed to the point that it is unusable. It is poisonous water that cannot drink or used for many important purposes, including agriculture. It causes diseases such as dysentery, typhoid, cholera, polio, and diarrhea. Water pollution kills more than 5 lakh people every year worldwide.
Main Causes of Water Pollution
It is also caused by nature, for example, when mercury filters from the earth's surface, contaminated seas, canals, reservoirs, rivers, and lakes. The most prevalent cause of poor water quality is human influence and its consequences. There are various causes of water pollution. Some of them are as follows:
Growing global temperatures caused by Carbon emission heat the water and reduce its oxygen content.
Industry, livestock, and agriculture farming
One of the key causes of water eutrophication is chemical dumping from certain industries.
Deforestation can exhaust water supplies and create organic residues that become a breeding ground for harmful bacteria.
Most of the ocean's plastic waste comes from fishing boats, tankers and shipping cargo.
Rubbish and water dumping
According to the UN reports, more than 80% of the world's waste makes its way into untreated seas and rivers.
Effects of Water Pollution
There are many effects of water pollution. Some of them are as follows:
Destruction of the ecosystem
Ecosystems are extremely dynamic and respond to even minor environmental changes. When left unchecked, water pollution can cause the entire ecosystem to collapse.
Effects of the food chain
Disruption of food chains occurs when water pollutants and toxins are consumed by aquatic animals (like fish, shellfish, and many more) and consumed by humans.
In humans, drinking or consuming dirty water in some way has several disastrous effects on our bodies. It causes various diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and many other diseases.
Chemicals in the water body stimulate the growth of algae. These algae make a layer on top of a lake or pond. Bacteria feed on these algae, which lowers the amount of oxygen in the water body, severely impacting the aquatic life of the body.
Types of water pollution
There are different types of water pollution. Some of them are as follows:
It is the main cause of water pollution. Not only is the agricultural sector the world's largest user of freshwater energy, with around 70% of the earth's surface water supply being used for agriculture and livestock production, but it is also a significant polluter of water.
Chemicals are another important type of water pollution. It can infiltrate both earth's surface and the underground water sources. As an essential component of the agricultural industry, it is unsurprising that much of the chemical pollution comes from pesticides and fungicides used in agriculture. Still, the major contributors are also metal and solvents from industrial sites.
Microbiological pollution is a naturally occurring form of water contamination, unlike most others on this list. Microorganisms such as bacteria, protozoa, and viruses may enter the water supply and cause diseases like bilharzia and cholera. In some areas where effective water treatment facilities are not yet in operation, people are most vulnerable to this kind of pollution.
Another effect of algal blooms is that they absorb oxygen sources. It implies that although anaerobic ones thrive, those species that rely on oxygen to survive are killed. Such anaerobic microorganisms can produce ammonia, sulfides and other toxic substances, making water even more hazardous to humans and animals.
Prevention of Water Pollution
There are various ways to prevent water pollution. Some of them are as follows: