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Water Pollution

Water Pollution

What is Water Pollution?

Water pollution is weakening a freshwater body like a lake, river, ocean, or groundwater due to toxic combined elements mostly introduced by human activities. Water quality is lowered when toxic chemicals are mixed with it. Since human is causing pollution in many ways, some actions are mainly polluting the land surface, water body surface' and the surfaces underwater bodies. Our everyday actions are causing the natural supply chain of pure water to some extent, posing a serious threat to all living beings, including humans.

Causes of Water Pollution

Only 25% of the world's water resources are freshwater. More than 6 billion pounds of junk and 70% of industrial waste are thrown into the oceans, contaminating the environment greatly. In recent days, a warning was published in newspapers stating that beaches will have more plastic bottles than fish in the near future. With the information provided, there will be a direct impact on flora and fauna.

As we said, the main contributors to water pollution are industrial waste dumped into bodies of water. Due to such heavy pollutants, the water body characteristics experience critical changes. For example - increase in temperature, decrease in oxygen levels, and deforestation. Apart from this, there are many reasons for polluting groundwater. Some examples include leaking underground storage tanks, dumps, chemicals, abandoned wells and sewage systems.

The downstream agriculture and fisheries are affected by the dam of the river. Due to more evaporation, eutrophication is high in dams, especially over large areas. The use of pesticides in agriculture helps the soil, increasing the level of nutrients. However, it also causes pollution to the groundwater to some extent.

Some of the primary causes of water pollution at present are as follows:

  • Eighty per cent of home sewage contributes to water pollution, which is the main carrier of typhus and cholera infections that affect humans.
  • The Pacific Ocean received 11 million litres of radioactive material in 2011, which also saw a tsunami hit Japan and the formation of 70 K.M.s worth of islands from debris.
  • Asia is the most populous continent with high levels of germs from human excrement. Around the world, water is contaminated with millions of tonnes of human garbage.
  • The Ganges, one of the dirtiest and most polluted rivers in the world, is in India, Asia.
  • Arsenic, which is very hazardous, poisonous, and carcinogenic, is present in the underground waters in Bangladesh, Asia.
  • Nearly 20% of China's drinking water is contaminated with carcinogens.
  • In America, sewage poses a hazard to aquatic bodies, with about 40% of rivers and 46% of lakes being polluted, making these water bodies unfit for swimming, fishing, or any other activity.

In a few previous years, infections linked to water pollution have killed nearly 15 million children under the age of five and afflicted 2.5 billion people globally.

Effects of Water Pollution

Humans, animals, and aquatic life are all seriously harmed by water pollution. Depending on the type of chemicals present in the Pollutants and their amounts, the effects on people, animals, and aquatic life may be disastrous. Urban trash is channelled to adjacent water through various resources, including garbage dumps from illegal manufacturing sites, health care facilities, hospitals, schools, and market areas.

Loss of Aquatic Fauna is also happening because of water pollution. Crabs, birds, Seagulls, Dolphins and many other animals are vanishing due to Water pollution. If people or other animals ingest fish containing pollutants like lead and cadmium, it will seriously affect their health. This way, the water pollution will not affect only the creatures within the water but also the other living beings, including humans. As a result, the water will cause a major catastrophe, pose a serious threat to the food chain, and result in the extinction of many species around the globe, particularly in aquatic habitats.

The lack of fishing and recreational activity, caused by water contamination, usually cost the U.S. tourism industry around $1 billion annually.

How to control Water Pollution?

  • Many industries pollute the water by dumping garbage into the oceans, and accidental spills negatively impact the ecosystem. The government in every country should prevent this action of industries and force them to dispose of the industrial dumps without affecting the environment.
  • Instead of pouring oil, fat or grease into the kitchen sink, people should keep unused utensils and throw them in the trash once they are filled up.
  • Drains should not be used to dispose of tainted liquids, pills, narcotics, or medications. Everyone must be encouraged to use the suggested disposal techniques to keep the contaminated water bodies under control.
  • People must avoid using toilets as trash cans and dumping everything through them. Also, it is essential to use soaps and detergent to a limited extent.
  • The government must also help promote effective waste management and sewage treatment.
  • It is best to conserve water, encourage eco-friendly items, greenery, and products that support sustainability, and promote recyclable and reusable alternatives to plastic.
  • The farmers must avoid using insecticide and fertiliser as much as possible. This will help decrease pollutants in soil, making underwater fresh to some extent. Organic farming is more effective for human health in various direct and indirect ways.
  • People should install water-saving home appliances and participate in water pollution prevention activities or campaigns to protect water resources.

Facts related to Water pollution

In almost a dozen Facts for Water Pollution, pollutants from energy production, sewage, industry, and other activities are included. Some well-known facts related to water pollution are as follows:

  • An estimated 1.5 million metric tonnes of nitrogen pollution are transported into the Gulf of Mexico by the Mississippi River.
  • S. water resources get nearly 1.2 trillion gallons of untreated sewage, stormwater, and industrial waste.
  • More than 80% of sewage water is released into the environment untreated, and nearly 70% of industrial waste is also released into the environment the same way. If there is a leak, about 20,000 known unmanaged and abandoned hazardous waste sites might get affected.
  • More than 70 per cent of China's rivers and lakes are contaminated and unsuitable for human use. The Yangtze River has received 25 billion tonnes of animal faeces and industrial garbage. Industry dump is estimated at 300-400 MT of polluted waste in waters every year, and Nitrate from agriculture is standard in the world's aquifers.


Let's encourage additional initiatives to save our limited water resources as much as possible. It is our responsibility not to squander or pollute rivers; show the utmost respect for water and life. Everyone must pay attention to water services and take the initiative to address any water-related societal issues. Let's save our water and the earth by conserving water. People should use water resources carefully and safely for a healthy and prosperous future on earth.

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