What is law Of Inertia?
Law of Inertia
A body at rest or travelling in a straight line at a constant speed will continue to do so unless it is acted upon by a force, according to the law of inertia, often known as Newton's first law, physics postulate.
Galileo Galilei first proposed the law of inertia for Earth's horizontal motion, and René Descartes later generalized it. Galileo concluded from his studies that a body in motion would stay in motion unless a force (such as friction) caused it to come to rest.
Previously, it had been believed that all horizontal motion required a direct cause. The first of Isaac Newton's three laws of motion is also known as this law.
Although the fundamental premise and starting point of classical mechanics is the notion of inertia, the untrained eye finds it to be less than immediately clear. In both everyday life and Aristotelian mechanics, objects that are not being pushed tend to come to rest.
Galileo derived the law of inertia from his studies involving balls rolling down inclined surfaces.
Galileo needed to explain how it was conceivable that, if Earth is truly spinning on its axis and orbiting the Sun, we do not perceive that motion. To do this, he needed to apply the theory of inertia, which was important to his main scientific mission.
The response is supported by the principle of inertia, which states that because we move with the Earth and tend to keep moving, Earth appears to be at rest to us.
As a result, the principle of inertia was once a major topic of debate in science and was far from being a statement of the obvious.
By the time Newton had worked out all the kinks, it was feasible to precisely explain the minor departures from this picture brought on by the fact that the motion of the Earth's surface is not uniform motion in a straight line.
The frequent observation that bodies that are not pushed tend to come to rest is explained by the Newtonian formulation as the result of unbalanced forces acting on them, like friction and air resistance.
There is no significant difference between uniform motion in a straight line and rest in classical Newtonian mechanics because they can both be seen as states of motion by different observers, one moving at the same speed as the particle and the other moving at constant velocity in relation to the particle.
Dynamics is a subfield of mechanics and a discipline of physical science that studies how physical objects move in relation to the force, mass, momentum, and energy that influence them.
Here is a quick explanation of dynamics. See mechanics for a comprehensive treatment.
Kinematics, which explains motion in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration without regard to its causes, and kinetics, which is concerned with the impact of forces and torques on the motion of mass-bearing bodies, are both subsets of dynamics.
Galileo laid the groundwork for dynamics at the end of the 16th century by developing the law of motion for falling bodies through experimentation with a smooth ball rolling down an inclined plane.
He was also the first to realize that force is what determines changes in a body's velocity before Isaac Newton codified this idea in his second law of motion in the 17th century.
According to this equation, the force exerted on a body is proportional to the speed at which its momentum is changing. Additionally, see Newton's laws of motion.
Using Newton's laws of motion
The basis of classical mechanics is laid out in three assertions known as Newton's laws of motion, which were first articulated by English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton. These laws describe the relationships between forces acting on a body and its motion.
First law of Newton: The law of inertia
According to Newton's first law, if a body is at rest or moving in a straight line at a constant speed, it will continue to move at that speed or remain at rest until acted with by a force.
In fact, according to classical Newtonian mechanics, there is no significant difference between being at rest and moving uniformly in a straight line; they can both be thought of as states of motion experienced by different observers, one of whom moves at the same speed as the particle and the other of whom moves at a constant speed in relation to the particle.
The law of inertia is the name given to this premise.
Galileo Galilei first proposed the law of inertia for Earth's horizontal motion, and René Descartes later generalized it. Although the fundamental premise and starting point of classical mechanics is the notion of inertia, the untrained eye finds it to be less than immediately clear.
In both everyday life and Aristotelian mechanics, objects that are not being pushed tend to come to rest. Galileo derived the law of inertia from his studies involving balls rolling down inclined surfaces.
Galileo had to explain how it was conceivable that, if the Earth is indeed rotating on its axis and orbiting the Sun, we do not perceive that motion. To do this, he had to explain the principle of inertia, which was essential to his main scientific mission. The response is supported by the concept of inertia, which states that because we move with the Earth and tend to keep moving, Earth appears to be at rest to us.
As a result, the principle of inertia was once a major topic of debate in science and was far from being a statement of the obvious. By the time Newton had worked out all the details, it was feasible to accurately account for the minor departures from this picture brought on by the fact that the Earth's surface is not moving uniformly in a straight line. The frequent observation that bodies that are not pushed tend to come to rest is explained by the Newtonian formulation as the result of unbalanced forces acting on them, like friction and air resistance.
Second law of Newton: F = ma
Newton's second law provides a precise explanation of the modifications that a force can make to a body's motion. According to this, a body's momentum changes at a rate that is equal to the force acting on it over time in both One of the most significant laws in all of physics is Newton's second law. F = ma, where F (force) and a (acceleration) are both vector values, can be used to represent a body whose mass m is constant.
A body is accelerated according to the equation if there is net force acting on it. On the other hand, if a body is not propelled, no net force is exerted on it.
The law of action and response is Newton's third principle.
According to Newton's third law, when two bodies come into contact, they exert forces on one another that are equal in size and directed in the opposite direction. The law of action and reaction is another name for the third law.
Magnitude and direction
A body's momentum is equal to the sum of its mass and velocity. Like velocity, momentum has both a magnitude and a direction, making it a vector quantity.
When a force is applied to a body, the momentum's magnitude, direction, or both can change. This law applies to bodies in uniform or rapid motion and is crucial for analyzing problems of static equilibrium, where all forces are in balance. The forces it discusses are actual phenomena, not just accounting tricks.
A book lying on a table, for instance, exerts downward pressure equal to the weight of the book on the table. The third law states that the book is subject to an equal and opposing force from the table. The book is pushed back against the table like a coiled spring because of the table's small deformation brought on by the weight of the book.
A body experiences accelerated motion in accordance with the second law if there is net force acting on it.
The body does not accelerate and is in equilibrium if there is no net force acting on it, either because there are no forces at all or because all forces are precisely balanced by opposing forces. On the other hand, a body that is seen to not be moving faster can be inferred to have no net force acting on it.
The effects of Newton's laws
Newton's laws originally appeared in his masterpiece, Philosophize Naturalis Principia Mathematical (1687), generally known as the Principia. Instead of the Earth being at the center of the cosmos, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that it might be the Sun in 1543.
The Aristotelian worldview, which the ancient Greeks passed down to us, would be replaced by a new science that would also explain how a heliocentric cosmos function. In the intervening years, Galileo, Johannes Kepler, and Descartes laid the groundwork for this new science.
That new science was developed by Newton in the Principia. He created his three principles to help explain why planets' orbits are ellipses rather than circles, which he was successful in doing, but it turned out that he explained a lot more. The Scientific Revolution is the collective name for the string of occurrences from Copernicus through Newton.
Quantum mechanics and relativity have during the 20th century superseded Newton's rules as the most basic tenets of physics. Nevertheless, except for tiny entities like electrons or those moving nearly at the speed of light, Newton's equations continue to provide a reliable explanation of nature.
Newton's rules are what quantum mechanics and relativity come down to for larger or slower moving objects.
A body's inertia is a quality that makes it resist attempts to set it in motion or, if it is already moving, to change the speed or direction of it.
A body's inertia is a passive characteristic that only allows it to oppose active agents like forces and torques. A moving body continues to move not because of its inertia but rather because there is no external force present to induce it to slow down, veer off course, or accelerate.
A body's moment of inertia about a certain axis, which quantifies how resistant it is to the action of a torque about that axis, and its mass, which determines how resistant it is to the action of a force, are the two numerical measures of inertia. Check out Newton's laws of motion.
In its broadest definition, celestial mechanics refers to the application of classical mechanics to the motion of celestial bodies that are subject to a variety of forces. The gravitational attraction between these bodies is frequently the only significant force felt by them and by far the most important force.
However, additional factors, such as air drag on man-made satellites, radiation pressure on dust particles, and even electromagnetic forces on dust particles if they are electrically charged and travelling in a magnetic field, can also be significant.
It's common to believe that the phrase "celestial mechanics" exclusively refers to the analysis created for the motion of point mass particles travelling in response to their mutual gravitational pull, with a focus on the overall orbital motions of solar system bodies.
The celestial mechanics of man-made satellite motion are frequently referred to as astrodynamics. In addition to celestial mechanics and astrodynamics, the much broader term dynamic astronomy is typically understood to encompass all facets of celestial body motion, such as rotation, tidal evolution, determining the mass and mass distribution of stars and galaxies, fluid motions in nebulas, and so on.
The study of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and the five planets that could be seen without the use of a telescope-Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn-led to the development of celestial mechanics. The word "planet" comes from the Greek word for "wanderer," so it makes sense that some cultures would elevate these movable objects against the immovable sky to the status of gods. This status is still maintained in some ways in astrology, where the positions of the planets and Sun are believed to have some bearing on people's lives on Earth.
The idea that the planets are divine and that they have an impact on human behavior may have served as the main inspiration for thorough, ongoing monitoring of planetary motions and the creation of complex models for predicting their positions in the future.
A theory of planetary motion with Earth fixed in the center and all other planets, the Moon, and the Sun around it was postulated by the Greek astronomer Ptolemy (who resided in Alexandria circa 140 CE). The speed at which the planets move through the sky as observed from Earth varies. They occasionally even change their direction of motion, but they soon go back to the main direction.
Ptolemy believed that the planets moved in an irregular manner around small circles called epicycles, with the center of the epicyclical circle orbiting Earth on a larger circle known as a deferent.
The motion's other variances were explained by slightly shifting the centroid of each planet's deferent from Earth.
Ptolemy was able to forecast the motions of the planets with a high degree of precision by carefully balancing the speeds and distances.
His plan was accepted as unquestionable orthodoxy and persisted for more than a millennium until the time of Copernicus.
Nicolaus Copernicus believed Earth to be merely one of the planets that revolved around the Sun. He demonstrated that this model, which is heliocentric (centered on the Sun), is consistent with all evidence and is far more straightforward than Ptolemy's plan.
He had to incorporate several epicycles to match the motions in the noncircular orbits since he believed that planetary motion had to be a combination of uniform circular motions.
The epicycles were comparable to the Fourier series concepts that are currently employed to describe planetary motions. (A Fourier series is an infinite accumulation of periodic terms that smoothly fluctuate between positive and negative values, with the oscillation frequency varying from term to term.
As more terms are retained, they offer increasingly better approximations to other functions.) Additionally, Copernicus calculated the relative size of his heliocentric solar system, and the results are very similar to the current calculation.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), who was born three years after Copernicus' passing and three years after the release of the latter's heliocentric model of the solar system, maintained his belief in the geocentric model but had only the Sun and the Moon circle Earth with all other planets orbiting the Sun.
Although this model reflects an unneeded complexity and is physically inaccurate, it is mathematically equal to Copernicus' heliocentric model.
The more than 20 years of astronomical observations Tycho gathered were his biggest contribution; his measurements of the positions of the planets and stars had an unheard-of accuracy of roughly 2 arc minutes. 1/60 of a degree is equal to one arc minute.
The planetary motion laws of Kepler
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), who worked with Tycho until just before his passing, received Tycho's observations. Kepler's famous three laws of planetary motion were empirically derived from these precise positions of the planets at correspondingly precise times:
1: The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the Sun at one focus;
2: The radial line from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times;
3: The ratio of the squares of the periods of revolution around the Sun of any two planets equals the ratio of the cubes of the semi major axes of their
A planar curve known as an ellipse is one where the sum of the lengths between any point G on the curve and two fixed locations S and S′ is constant.
The major axis of the ellipse is the line on which the two points S and S′ lie between the elliptical extrema at A and P.
These two points are known as foci. As a result, in Figure 1, where and is the semi major axis of the ellipse, GS + GS′ = AP = 2a. The fractional portion of the semi major axis, which is supplied by the product age and is known as the eccentricity, determines how far a focus is from the ellipse's center C. e = 0 hence represents a circle.
However, more precise terminology, such as perigee and apogee for Earth, are sometimes used to denote the main body.
The Sun (or focus S) serves as the angle's origin or vertex and locates G, the instantaneous location of a planet in its orbit, in relation to the perihelion P. This angle is known as the true anomaly.
The eccentric anomaly, or angle u, locates G relative to P but uses the ellipse's center as its origin rather than the focus S.
Also measured from P with S as the origin is an angle known as the mean anomaly l, which is defined to increase evenly with time and to equal the genuine anomaly f at perihelion and aphelion.
Using Newton's laws of motion
Kepler's empirical laws explain planetary motion, but he never tried to specify or limit the underlying physical mechanisms causing the motion. That achievement was made in the late 17th century by Isaac Newton.
According to Newton, momentum is a function of both velocity and the constant of proportionality, mass.
Then, Newton developed his three laws of motion by defining force (also a vector quantity) in terms of its impact on moving objects.
1: Unless an external force acts on the object, its momentum remains constant, ensuring that all objects continue to move uniformly in a straight line or remain at rest.
2: The force exerted on an item has the same temporal rate of change as its momentum.
3: There is an equal and opposite reaction (force) to every action (force).
It is believed that the second law is a specific case of the first law. With his mechanical tests, Galileo, a famous Italian who lived during Kepler's time and supported and aggressively advocated the Copernican viewpoint foresaw Newton's first two laws.
However, it was Newton who gave them explicit definitions, laid the groundwork for classical mechanics, and prepared the way for their application to the motions of bodies in space as celestial mechanics.
The second law states that a planet's course towards the Sun must be bent by an external force.
In addition, if multiple objects were moving in a circle around the same center at different separations r and their periods of revolution varied as r3/2, as Kepler's third law indicated for the planets, then the acceleration-and by Newton's second law, the force as well-must vary as 1/r2.
This is because a body in uniform circular motion must accelerate in the direction of the circle's center.
Newton demonstrated that a spherically symmetric mass distribution attracted a second body outside the sphere as if all the spherically distributed mass were contained in a point at the center of the sphere by assuming this attractive force between point masses.
As a result, the gravitational force that pulls objects to Earth and the planets together is the same.
The law of universal gravitation, which is a conclusion reached by Newton, states that the force of attraction between two massive bodies is inversely proportional to their distance from one another and to the product of their masses.
Newton's laws of motion can be used to derive Kepler's laws, which can then be used to derive Newton's law of gravity, if the center force of gravity varies as 1/r2 from a fixed point.
In addition to formulating the laws of motion and gravity, Newton demonstrated that a point mass moving about a fixed center of force, which varies as the inverse square of the distance from the center, follows an elliptical path if the initial velocity is not too high, a hyperbolic path for high initial velocities, and a parabolic path for intermediate velocities.
To put it another way, a series of orbits in perihelion distance SP fixed and the velocity at P increasing from orbit to orbit are defined by a corresponding increase in orbital eccentricity e from orbit to orbit, where e 1 for bound elliptical orbits, e = 1 for a parabolic orbit, and e > 1 for a hyperbolic orbit.
When making their first entry into the inner solar system, many comets have nearly parabolic orbits, whereas when passing by a planet, spacecraft may have nearly hyperbolic orbits.
The motion of the planets in the solar system has historically been used as a laboratory to constrain and direct the advancement of classical mechanics in general and celestial mechanics.
It has become a test of Newton's law of gravitation itself in recent times as ever-more-accurate observations of celestial bodies have been matched by ever-more-accurate forecasts of their positions in the future.
It was eventually discovered that this law of gravitation was only an approximation of the more accurate description of gravity provided by the theory of general relativity, even though the lunar motion (within observational errors) appeared consistent with a gravitational attraction between point masses that decreased exactly as 1/r2.
Quantitative celestial mechanics achieved victory when it was possible to claim with certainty that this minor divergence was real.