Who invented Google
Larry Page and Sergey Brin was the founding father of Google. They established the Company in 1998 in Menlo Park, California, U.S. The headquarter of Google is, in Amphitheatre Parkway, Mountain View, California, U.S. Sundar Pichai is the CEO of the Company, and the CFO is Ruth Porat. Its Parent Company is Alphabet Inc., and the total number of employees as of 2020 is 139,995.
Here, we will discuss how the Google Company came into existence, Significance of the title "Google", Investors of Google, developments, Services of Google, Google's software and hardware products, and more.
How the Google Company came into existence?
It was the year 1996 when Larry Page and Sergey Brin began the project on Google while doing their Doctoral degree from Stanford University, California. However, most of the Code for the Google search engine was written by Scott Hassan during the project, but before the foundation of Google, he left the project. He has chosen his profession in Robotics and established Willow Garage in 2006. Earlier the name of Google was "BackRub", as it used to check the backlinks for estimating the value of a site. Afterward, they changed it to Google that signified to provide lots of information. Some more names who contributed to the project are Rajeev Motwani and Terry Winograd, who co-authored in PageRank, which was the initial prototype of the search engine, published in 1998. Hector Garcia-Molina and Jeff Ullman also gave their contribution. After the foundation of Google, Craig Silverstein was the first employee. www.google.com, the domain name of the site, was enrolled on 15th September 1997.
Significance of the title "Google"
Sergey Brin, one of the inventors of Google, designed the logo of Google. The title Google was taken from the word of googol that denotes a number which symbolized by 1, which is followed by 100 zeros. The founder of the Google Page and Brin wrote in their original paper on PageRank that why they have chosen the title Google. It was so because the origin of the title suited their aim for making a wide-reaching search engine. The title was added to Merriam Webster dictionary and Oxford dictionary in 2006, with the meaning "use the search engine of Google for getting the info on cyber server." The Company gave its manifesto that they are committed to arranging all the information of the world that will be reachable and beneficial for all. The Company also gave a slogan unofficially, "Do not be bad". In 2015, Alphabet code of conduct took on the proverb: "Do the right things".
Investors of Google
Moreover, earlier at the time of the foundation of Google, it was funded by some investors like, in August 1998, Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, invested $100,000. The other investors in 1998 were Jeff Bezos, the founder of amazon.com; David Cheriton, the computer science professor of Stanford University; and Ram Shriram, the entrepreneur. With these initial investors, as well as with the help of friends and family, Google raised the fund around $1,000,000, and with that amount, Google opened its first shop in Menlo Park, California. However, by the end of 1998 and early 1999 through the funding of some more investors like; Kleiner Perkins of the Venture Capital, Sequoia Capital, and others, Google raised a new fund of $25 million.
After Menlo Park, the office of Google Company moved to Palo Alto in March 1999, where it becomes the default search engine for Yahoo! in 2000. It opened its new branch in Mountain View, California, in 2003, which is known as Googolplex. In 2001 for making the management stronger, the investors of Google hired Eric Schmidt as a new Chairman as well as the CEO of Google. In 2004 the Company became a public corporation. Thereafter the Company sold its share worth $1.67 billion that gave it a market capitalization $23 billion. Later Google acquired YouTube worth $1.65 billion as well as acquired double click worth $3.1 billion. By the time the per day searches of Google increased to 3 billion, due to which Google had made 11 more data centers across the world to tackle the workload more efficiently. The Google Company acquired several other companies like; Motorola mobility worth $12.5 billion in May 2012 as well as Waze worth $966 million in June 2013. On 19th September 2013, the Company launched Calico. Arthur Levinson, the Chairman of Apple Inc., led the Company. Google also acquired DeepMind technologies on 26th January 2014, which was an artificial intelligence and robotics community. In August 2015, after becoming the Umbrella Company of Alphabet's Larry Page became the CEO of Alphabet and Sundar Pichai the CEO of Google.
In the years 2017, 2018, and 2019 the company fired its several employees, about 20,000, for internal sexual harassment. Google launched Google Stadia, a gaming platform, on 3rd June 2019. The same year in the month of December, Bill Ready became the new commerce chief of Google. However, in 2020 due to a pandemic, Google slowed down its hiring. And the same year, its services like Google Drive, Youtube and, other applications were disrupted but resolved within hours. For bringing the major games for Stadia, the Company invested a big amount in the publishers like Ubisoft and Take-Two.
Google's submarine communication cables
Google opened its data centers across the continents, like; North America, South America, Asia, and Europe. According to the report of July 2016, it had 2.5 million servers. The Company also built its own private submarine communications cables. There is a total of four cables. The first one is Curie, which connects California to Chile and is completed in 2019. The second is Dunant, which is an undersea cable that began its operation in 2020. It connects the United States with France. The third one is Equitant. It is a subsea cable that connected Lisbon, Portugal with, Lagos and some other countries too. The fourth and last one is Grace Hopper. However, now it is a part of future planning for 2022. It will connect landing points in New York, U.S., U.K, and also many more countries.
Google's Investments for environment
It is discussed as follows:
Establishment of Rooftop Photovoltaic Power Station
Earlier in October 2006, Google planned to install thousand of solar panels for providing up to 1.6 megawatts of electricity, which can fulfill 30% of campus energy needs. The established rooftop photovoltaic power station was one of the biggest of all constructed systems all over the world.
Renewable energy projects
In 2010, the first investment of Google energy was in a renewable energy project. In this project, Google invested $38.8 million in two Wind Farms in North Dakota that can generate 169.5 megawatts enough for 55,000 homes. Google got authorization in 2010 by FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for buying and selling energy at market rates. In July 2010, Google made a deal with Lowa Wind Farm for buying 114 megawatts of power for 20 years. In 2013 Google announced to purchase 240-megawatt power from Happy Windfarm. In 2017 Google purchased sufficient renewable energy for consumption by its Company and also became the biggest purchaser of renewable energy. In 2019 it announced for $2 billion Wind and Solar investment, which was the biggest ever deal for renewable energy in corporate history. This deal will increase Google's Green energy profile.
Google Company's commitment to zero waste to landfill
In 2020 the Company announced that by 2030 its data centers would use carbon-free energy. The company hardware products will be 100% plastic-free as well as will be 100% recyclable by 2025. The Company also declared that by 2022 they would get the certificate of zero waste to landfill, as most of the waste material that they get after production will be recycled rather than dispose of it in the land.
Services of Google
Google provides various services to users:-
Google's software products
Google launched various software products in the market like;
Google's hardware products
So Google, as well as its other websites like YouTube, Blogger is the most visited website all over the world. In Forbes, it ranked second in the field of valuable brands.
Income of Google
The main source of income of Google is its revenues from advertising. That is selling off several apps as well as purchasing of apps, digital data items on Google and YouTube, license and service fees obtained for Google cloud offerings. The Company got 46% of its total profit by the clicks, as they got US$109,652 million per click in 2017. Further in the year 2020, the total revenue of Google was $182,527,000,000, its operating income was $41,224,000,000, its net income was $40,269,000,000, and its total assets were $319,616,000,000.
Further, Google hired its employee on the basis of the hierarchical system. There are six levels of hiring the employee like on the first level, it hired entry-level data centers worker, and on the sixth level, there are managers as well as experienced engineers. For the motivation of its employee, like engineers company uses a plan called Innovation Time off. Under this plan, the Company encourages their engineers to spend 20% of their works time on the area of their interests. As a result of this plan, fifty percent of all the new products launched by the end of 2005 were developed by the Innovation Time off. Some of Google services like; Gmail, Google News, Orkut, and Adsense are also developed by these independent endeavors.
According to fortune magazines, the rank of Google was number one in the years 2007, 2008, and 2012 in respect of its workplace. However, it ranked 4th in 2009 and 2010. It was also nominated the world's most attractive employer in 2010. The theories and ideologies of Google Company are; we should not do bad things for making many, we can be serious without a suit, and the work should be difficult or daring, and we should take these issues as fun and should make it enjoyable.
Controversies of Google Company
However, Google was also criticized due to its some issue like privacy concerns, censorship, tax avoidance, search neutrality, antitrust, and for its monopoly position as well as sexism and ageism from its former employees. In 2005 The New York Times and some other sources said that Google lost its anti-corporate, no evil philosophy.
Creation of Alpha Global for retaining Company's ethics and workplace culture
However, to maintain its culture and to keep the core values of the Company, Google again made a Chief culture officer. On 25th January 2020, Google created Alpha Global, an international workers union of Google employees. The union of Alpha Global was created because the Company was charged for the ill-treatment of its employees as well as an unsafe and unfriendly workplace environment. Alpha Global is consists of thirteen different unions that represent the workers in ten countries like; the U.K., U.S., Switzerland, etc. All the unions are associated with UNI Global Union that symbolizes twenty million international workers from several different unions and federations.
Google's social consciousness
Overall, Google has also done some work for the welfare of society l; it started the non-profit charitable google.org with a $1 billion fund. The organization has undertaken the responsibility for creating consciousness about weather changes, public health as well as poverty. Google donated 1million Euros to the international mathematical Olympiad in 2011. It also launched a Legalize Love Campaign for supporting gay rights./p>