Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Abiotic Components of Ecosystem

In ecology or biology, abiotic factors or abiotic components are physical parts and non-living chemicals of an environment. They affect the functionalities and living organisms of the ecosystems. Abiotic components and the phenomena related to these factors underpin biology as a whole.

Abiotic factors include non-living resources and physical conditions that impact living components in the terms of reproduction, maintenance, and growth.

Resources are differentiated as objects and substances in an environment needed by a single organism and exhausted or otherwise created unavailable to use by various other organisms.
Component deterioration of a substance appears by physical or chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Every non-living component of the ecosystem like water resources and atmospheric conditions are known as 'Abiotic components'.

Introduction to Ecosystem

Living components seem to collaborate with themselves and the physical environment. In short, it can be known as an ecosystem. There are different kinds of the ecosystem, for example, biosphere can be any global ecosystem.

These all rely on the distinct components and the intensity to which we wish to describe the space, for considering it as the ecosystem. So, for learning more about them, these ecosystems are generally categorized into smaller forms.

  • Environmental biology or ecology is the field that learns this complex group of relationships among the living components and their neighboring environment.
  • The capacity of this field is highly large and masks things such as animal and plant extinction, environmental pollution, and, global warming, etc.

Examples of Abiotic Components

Abiotic components contain soil, acidity, atmosphere, humidity, temperature, radiation, light, and water in biology. Often, the macroscopic climate affects all of the above. The sound and pressure waves might be considered in the terms of sub-terrestrial or marine environments.
In the ocean environments, abiotic components also add tides, solar energy, water clarity, substrate, and aerial exposure. Also, examine the differences within the mechanics of CAM, C4, and C3 plants for regulating the flood of carbon dioxide into the Calvin-Benson Cycle regarding the abiotic stressors.

  • C3 type of plants includes no mechanisms for managing photorespiration.
  • While CAM and C4 type of plants utilize an isolate PEP Carboxylase enzyme for preventing photorespiration.
  • Hence, these are enhancing the production of photosynthetic processes within several high energy platforms.
  • Various Archea need very high pressure, unusual considerations, and temperatures of chemical substances like Sulfur.
  • It is because of their characterization in extreme situations.
  • Also, fungi have evolved for surviving at the stability, humidity, and temperature of their environment as well.

For example,

An important difference in access is humidity and water between temperate deserts and rain forests. This kind of difference in water accessibility leads to a variation in various organisms that remain in these places.

In abiotic components, these differences modify the species available by making boundaries of what kind of species could live in the environment. Also, these are affecting competition among two species.

Various abiotic components like salinity can provide a single species an opposing benefit over another. It creates pressure that causes alteration and speciation of the species to and through specialist and generalist competitors.

Types of Components in Ecosystem

Mainly, there are two components of the ecosystem, namely biotic and abiotic. These are communicating with each other constantly. These components are as follows:

Biotic components

The living factors of the ecosystem are known as biotic components. A few of these components include bacteria, fungi, as well as animals, and plants.

The biotic components could be further divided based on various energy requirement sources. Decomposers, consumers, and producers are the three main types of biotic components.

Abiotic Components of Ecosystem
  • Producers: These are plants within an ecosystem. They can produce their energy requirement by the photosynthetic in the existence of chlorophyll and sunlight. Every other living components are reliant on the plants for energy requirements of oxygen and food as well.
  • Consumers: These components contain omnivores, carnivores, and herbivores. The omnivores are animals that can eat animal and plant tissue. The carnivores can eat other types of living organisms. The herbivores are living components that feed on the plants.
  • Decomposers: These types of biotic components are bacteria and fungi. They are the saprophytes. These are feed on the deteriorating organic matter and transform it into carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The saprophytes include a crucial role in reprocessing the nutrients hence that the producers such as plants can utilize them once more.

Abiotic Components

Abiotic components are chemical or/and physical factors that perform on the living components at any time of their life. These are known as ecological factors. The chemical and physical factors are features of an environment. Nutrients, soil, air, and light, etc. form these abiotic factors of the ecosystem.

The abiotic components change from one ecosystem to another ecosystem. The abiotic components may contain dissolved oxygen, available nutrients salinity, water depth, turbidity, sunlight, and water pH. Similarly, abiotic components in various terrestrial ecosystems may contain sunlight, nutrients, wind, altitude, rain, temperature, soil types, soil, etc.

Various essential abiotic components have been categorized below:

Abiotic Components of Ecosystem
  1. Edaphic factors: This term arises through the Greek term 'edaphos' that means floor. Edaphic factors contain substratum and soil. It indicates the abiotic components such as land geography and soil features like mineral content. The land topography such as slopes, depressions, valleys, mountains, and elevations each contribute to the features of the ecosystem. Similarly, soil features such as density, structure, texture, and composition negotiate which plants could grow, and what creatures could live there.
  2. Topographic factors: Topographic factors contain altitude, surface exposure, and slope, etc. These factors define how the activity of the human can affect the resources and land in the area. All humans include affecting on several ecosystem features. Topographic components are likely to lead to large-scale modifications. Thus, they could include profound impacts on various other biotic factors, abiotic factors, the whole ecosystem, and whole biomes. Some of the examples include farming, dam building, mining, and forest clear-cutting.
  3. Climatic factors: Climatic factors contain precipitation, light, temperature, atmospheric wind, and humidity. The wind can spread seeds in the air that helps with implantation and provides plants an opportunity to grow. Also, the wind is an important illustration of abiotic components such as wind speed and direction that can impact humidity.

Abiotic Factors Responses

There are many ways where organisms or living components respond to several abiotic factors. They contain the following:

  • Conformers: Almost every organism doesn't have the capability for regulating the conditions of its body. As per an environment, they contain a varying bodily condition. They are known as conformers.
  • Regulators: A regulator is a mechanism used via organisms for maintaining the constant situations in a body. Such as, humans include the capability to manage homeostasis in the context of the temperature of the body. Humans try to manage 37°C temperature by shivering in the cooler weather and sweating in a hot one.
  • Migrate: A few organisms move too far off areas during a specific condition of weather and return at the time the condition of the weather is restored. Such as, Siberian birds migrate to the South during the winter season for avoiding the cold weather.
  • Diapause: It is the cause of a delay and natural interruption in the evolution of possible animals described by the modifications in the metabolic action. This kind of natural disruptions during conflicting environmental is general in most of the snails, shellfish, crabs, parasites, insects, and other groups of animals of zooplanktons.
  • Suspend: A few organisms include different mechanisms for escaping the rigid environment. A few bacteria become grains which secure the cell through extreme situations. A bear similarly going to hibernation at the time of winter is another example.

Abiotic factors list in distinct Ecosystems

There are distinct examples of various abiotic components for distinct natural ecosystems while every ecosystem has a few abiotic components in common.

Abiotic Component Examples in Rainforest

The distinct rainforest levels depend on distinct abiotic components, but they each count on:

  • Sunlight
  • Latitude (close the equator)
  • Warm temperatures
  • Mild seasonal changes
  • High rainfall

Abiotic Component Examples in Desert

The desert biome depends on the cooperation of several abiotic components to preserve life, like:

  • Low moisture
  • Clear skies
  • Usually sandy soil (not always)
  • Extreme temperature modifications
  • Low rainfall

Abiotic Component Examples in Grasslands

The specific animal and plants life detected in grasslands depends on:

  • Soil texture
  • Storms
  • Cliffs
  • Near neutral pH soil
  • High winds

Abiotic Component Examples in Mountains

The types of animals and plants that can develop in the ecosystems of mountain require cooperating with elements such as:

  • Low oxygen levels
  • Strong winds
  • Boulders
  • Snow
  • High elevation

Abiotic Component Examples in Ocean

Various marine ecosystems such as oceans depend on the abiotic components:

  • Rocks
  • Pollution
  • Water depth
  • Ocean currents
  • Higher salinity (salt absorption in water)

Ecosystem Importance

The main points that determine the purpose of the ecosystem in the world include the below:

  • It is essential for energy flow regulations and ecological processes to provide stability and support life systems.
  • It is necessary for an absolute important process known as the nutrient cycle in which nutrients in the pattern of matter and energy and swapped between abiotic and biotic factors.
  • It is useful in maintaining an appropriate balance between different trophic stages in an ecosystem.
  • It generates enough organic compounds which support swapping energy between different stages of organisms.
  • The ecosystem permits minerals recycling in the biosphere.
  • It embellishes people with medicines, timber, paper, fiber, and food. Also, it facilitates non-renewable and renewable energy sources.
  • The conservation of energy and matter takes a position in the ecosystem. The energy is balanced through the system as it flows through one component to other components and the matter will be recycled.
  • Distinct ecosystems are cooperating is known as the biosphere. We can say that the biosphere, therefore, is the addition of each ecosystem worldwide and is also called the ecosphere.
  • The ecosystem contains:
    • Abiotic factors
    • Biotic factors
    • A community

Abiotic vs. Biotic Components

Abiotic Components of Ecosystem
Comparison Basis Abiotic Components Biotic Components
Definition Abiotic components indicate every non-living component that is chemical factors and physical conditions that impact the ecosystem. Biotic components contain every living factor available in the ecosystem.
Dependence Abiotic components are separate from the biotic components completely. Biotic components rely on abiotic components for reproduction and survival.
Origin Abiotic factors originate from the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Biotic factors originate through the biosphere.
Factors Abiotic factors impact the capability of organisms for reproducing and surviving. They support in determining numbers and types of organisms capable to present in the environment. Living factors that indirectly or directly affect all the organisms of the environment.
Impact Abiotic components impact the individual of a particular biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, and species. Biotic components impact the biome, specific species, population, and biosphere.
Measurement Abiotic components are objective. Biotic components are subjective.
Adaptation Abiotic factors can't adapt as per the conditions of the environment. Biotic factors can adapt to the changes in an environment.
Components Abiotic factors include natural disturbance, climate, topography, and soil of the ecosystem. Biotic factors include different algae, bacteria, animals, and plants.
Examples Abiotic component examples include dissolved oxygen, wind, mineral, types of soil, altitude, precipitation, salinity, temperature, pH, humidity, air, water, sunlight, mineral nutrients exist in the water, air, soil, etc. Biotic component examples include all fauna and flora.

Distinguishing Disease Issues- Abiotic vs. Biotic

Plant issues are produced by living factors such as animals, mites, insects, nematodes, viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
Abiotic disorders can be produced by non-living organisms such as nutrient deficiency, chemical injury, wind injury, freeze injury, sunscald, drought stress, and inaccurate cultural practices like planting conditions or overwatering.
The harm caused by several non-living and living factors can occur very similarly, unfortunately. A proper diagnosis could be complex even with fine symptoms observation.
There are some points to determine that will support us to distinguish between biotic disease and abiotic disorder issues.

  • Often, abiotic damage appears on various plant species. Chemical injury or drought stress will possibly cause harm to many kinds of plants. The problems of the biotic disease are more restricted to a particular species.
    For example, the fungi that produce tomato leaf canker don't cause harm to sweet corn.
  • Abiotic harm doesn't spread from one plant to another over time. But, the biotic disease could spread throughout an individual plant and may also spread to adjoining plants of a similar species. One of the common forms for disease factors to spread from one plant to another is mind-blown rain.
  • Sometimes, biotic diseases show physical signs (evidence) of the pathogen like nematodes cysts, bacterial ooze, or fungal growth, or the presence of insects or mites. Abiotic diseases don't show the existence of disease signs.

There can be a single or multiple or various factors impacting the health of the plants. Often, plant insects and diseases preferentially harm plants that are damaged by abiotic factors.
Thus, the recognition of the primary issue and other additional factors is an essential step in handling the issue or ignoring these problems in the future.






Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now

Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Preparation


Trending Technologies


B.Tech / MCA