Advantages and Disadvantages of Democracy
Democracy is a form of governance followed in modern-day politics. This system is based on the government's election by the mandate of the people of the country. In simple terms, it is the rule by the people. The word "Democracy" is made of two Greek words - demos which means people, and Kratos, which means the rule. This political system is based on decision-making in a country by people who are elected and share equal power. The definition of democracy has always been evolving since it came into existence, and the reason for evolution has been the system's efficiency in solving all-time governance problems efficiently.
The word's first appearance was in the 5th century BC in classical Athens, a Greek city in contrast to the rule of aristocracy, which was based on the rule of the elite class. Democracy at the time signified the rule of the people. The sole of democracy is to distribute the power and equality of all, in contrast to the political system where power is concentrated in an individual's hand or held by a small group of people.
Democracy has not been very significant in ancient times. The concept of a republic has been significant at a small scale and comprised of a small population. The definition associated changed when it came into the political arena. Still, the concept had the quest to be significant enough to come into functioning.
Human society has many stages, including identity crises, small populations, and instabilities. The main issue is the formation and, more importantly, the acceptance. Historically, there had been no reference to sharing power, and the system sought power-sharing by different people and by the representatives of people who were to be elected equally.
Advantages of Democracy
1. People's Government
This form of the political system involves the representation of people in the government by electing their representatives based on their own will through free and fair elections. This feature makes this form the best form of government in modern times. Many countries have accepted this form of governance.
2. Safeguarding People's Interest
This feature of democracy is the most appreciated. The power lies within the capacity of the common people, and most importantly, this system talks about the responsibility towards the people. This system keeps the common people's social, economic, and political interests as the most important priority.
3. Promotion of Equality
This system is based on the Equality principle. People of all castes, creeds, religions, sex, races, or property are treated equally and cannot be discriminated against by State. Everyone has the right to choose.
This system has proven to be the most stable form of government. Also, this has turned out to be the most efficient as the tenure of the representatives in the government body is fixed. The government formed after the elections is based on the guidelines of the constitution. There is always a chance for change in a democracy, but this is bound by tenure, which makes it stable for efficient functioning.
5. Decision Making
Under another form of a system, such as a monarchy, decisions are taken as per their own choices. In a dictatorship, the dictator takes all the decisions, and no other people are involved without caring about people's welfare. However, democracy involves many levels with different people taking part in the decision-making, which makes it an efficient system of decision-making. People involved do take care of people's needs and work with dedication.
6. Political Involvement
This system makes the involvement of the citizens. This system makes them feel enthusiastic about the whole process and makes them participate in the development of democracy. The process is exciting for people, making them get involved and learn.
This system is so based on people's involvement that people live in peace and harmony. There is no chance of a clash as people have their representation in the government. The government always forms decisions and development plans based on consensus, so there is a minor chance of clash and dissatisfaction. This system incorporates the feeling of obligation in representatives towards the citizens of the country, so there is a rare chance of confrontation, and decisions are acceptable to all.
8. Good Citizens
The system integrates people and government for the conduct, which develops a sense of pride in becoming better citizens. This system in itself is a test for betterment.
9. Power Sharing
The most acknowledged feature of democracy is that it involves sharing power among authorities, and no monopoly lies in a single hand. This makes it possible to prevent discrimination against anyone.
This system is widely accepted and praised the most as a political system. The nature of governance involved, liberty to people, and representation of all make it ideal for people.
Disadvantages of Democracy.
1. Preference to Quantity
The focus is on quantity rather than quality. The majority party controls the government. People who are ineffective and corrupt become elected. They lack the intellect, vision, and character necessary to guide the state's ship to its intended destinations.
Democracies are governed by incapable people. It has amateurs in charge of it. Citizens are welcome to participate, but only some are qualified for it. Locke refers to it as the practice of uneducated people administering government. He claims that history shows that only a few people are bright. Everybody is given the right to vote under the universal adult franchise. As a result, "a few manipulators who can successfully gather votes obtain democratic authority." As a result, a democracy governed by the uneducated and unable becomes wholly unsuited to advancing knowledge and pursuing scientific facts.
3. Based on Unnatural Equality
Democracy is founded on equality. It violates the natural law. Not every person has been given equal knowledge and insight by nature. The talents of men vary. Some people are brave, while others are cowards. Some are in good health, while others aren't. Some people are smart, while others are not. According to critics, "to provide everyone equal standing is against the rule of nature."
4. Influenced Sides in Democracy
Capitalism underpins modern democracy. Many times the capitalists control it. Money is used in electoral campaigning. Cases of wealthy candidates influencing votes have been found. The entire process is ruled by economic might. The end consequence is plutocracy disguised as democracy?democracy in name and form, plutocracy in practice. The average person is not given a fig. The media is controlled by the wealthy, who profit from its use. Large corporations sway the daily press and employ them to sway public opinion in their favor. In England, America, and India, the influence of wealthy individuals on politics is undoubtedly obvious, which seems to defame the significance of democracy.
5. Misuse of Resources
The process involved in a democracy is long and complex. Later on, due to its nature, this may lead to wasting time with funds. The elections consume time and money, which is spent using the public fund, including the mid-term elections caused due to resignation or death of any person holding a constitutional position. There is a high chance that people in the government are incompetent and may end up making irresponsible use of resources such as funds. This may include the use of funds for their personal use.
Power distribution brings a high chance of misuse in particular domains. The cases of misuse of their power as officials for personal interest by putting aside the aim of serving citizens have been seen. The people in power end up utilizing their power to get benefits like wealth generation and involve themselves in corrupt practices.
7. Conflict of Choices
When people elect their representatives in elections, there is no distinction made on who has made a choice; instead, the majority of votes in favor of the candidate is the parameter for the election of a particular. Many people participating in the election to cast their votes are highly unaware of the political, social, and economical situation. This leads to the election of incompetent public representatives based on issues that have no contributions to nation-building and development. Also, elected officials might have different traits for a particular office assigned to them, which have bad consequences.
8. Less Participation
It has been an issue of consideration as there has been less participation of a particular population in elections. They have been reluctant to participate by casting their vote. This population may help in making the aims of democracy come true. It shows that they need to be aware of their votes' impact on the process.
9. Less Efficiency
The formulation of democracy is based on long hierarchical posts, which have their jurisdiction accordingly. This includes all concerned people's satisfaction and agreement, making it a long process to make policies. The discussions take a very long time. In other forms where a monopoly is involved, the decisions are quickly implemented. Whereas, in a democracy, some policies are not implemented due to the process of passing or formulating a policy. Even if a policy is finalized, it takes a long time to reach the level of its implementation.
10. Promotion of Malpractices
The concept of election in a democracy is made to enable all citizens to cast their vote and make a fair choice by proper analysis of a person's ability to lead. This involves manifestation by candidates based on their developmental goals and plans to let the common citizens know and decide for their betterment. But, this concept has turned into just luring the masses, contesting elections, and winning elections by any means. People, instead of manifestation, believe in muscle power, money, and sometimes forcing the voter. In modern times the use of digital technologies to insult and tarnish the image of the person contesting against has been in trend. This change in trends has put voters in a dilemma about choosing the best-suited candidate for them. This also leads to the development of reluctance to participate in the elections.
Every system has its own drawback, but In the case of a democratic system, after the overall evaluation of positive and negative sides, we can conclude whether or not it is a good system for common people!