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Python dir() Function

Python dir() function returns the list of names in the current local scope. If the object on which method is called has a method named __dir__(), this method will be called and must return the list of attributes. It takes a single object type argument. The signature of the function is given below.

Signature

Parameters

object: It takes an optional parameter.

Return

It returns a list of valid attributes of the object.

Let's see some examples of dir() function to understand it's functionality.

Python dir() Function Example 1

Let's create a simple example to get a list of valid attributes. It takes a single parameter which is optional.

Output:

['__annotations__', '__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__',
 '__spec__']

Python dir() Function Example 2

If we pass a parameter to this function, it returns attributes related to that object. See an example below.

Output:

['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__',
'__getitem__', '__getnewargs__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mul__', 
'__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', 
'__subclasshook__', 'count', 'index']

Python dir() Function Example 3

Output:

['__class__', '__delattr__', '__dict__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__module__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', '__weakref__']

Python dir() Function Example 4

If dir() function is already defined in the object, the function will be called.

Output:

[10, 20, 30]

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