Advantages and Disadvantages of Urbanization
The term "urbanization" describes the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decline in the number of people residing in rural areas, and the social adjustments made to this change. It is primarily the process by which towns and cities are created and grow bigger as more people start relocating to the city's core for living and employment.
Urbanization is not just a contemporary phenomenon; it is a historic, rapid transformation of human social roots on a global scale, where predominantly rural culture is being swiftly replaced by predominantly urban culture. The first significant alteration in settlement patterns occurred when hunter-gatherers began to assemble in villages thousands of years ago.
Common bloodlines, close relationships, and cooperative behavior define village culture; in contrast, distant bloodlines, strange relationships, and aggressive behavior define urban culture. In the coming decades, it is expected that this unprecedented human migration will continue and accelerate, enlarging cities to proportions that were unimaginable a century ago. So, until recently, the global urban population growth curve followed a quadratic-hyperbolic pattern.
Advantages of Urbanization
1. Convenience From Urbanization
Convenience is one of the many reasons people decide to move to a city. People now have simpler access to services like healthcare, education, and others that they might not have had in a rural area. There are many ways to navigate the city rather than staying in the country.
Since they aren't too far from your home, it will be simpler for you to travel to various locations if you want to go out. You don't necessarily need a car to get to the city. You have access to transportation options like cabs, buses, trains, subways, and others that might not be available in your home country. Because city signals are more important than those in the countryside, you can get better Internet access there. This is a great reason to move to the city because most people rely heavily on the Internet.
2. Better Economy is Generated
Cities rather than rural areas have a higher concentration of businesses and industries. Since there are few opportunities to draw customers in rural areas, people from the country can increase their income by relocating to the city. To draw in more clients, they can move their companies to cities. Additionally, finding a job in a city is easier than in a rural area.
There are more employment opportunities in the city because there are more businesses there. In the city, it will be simpler for them to land a job regardless of experience. Greater numbers of businesses in the city are open to hiring fresh graduates. Opportunities in the nation are restricted to those with skills, making it more difficult for those without experience to find employment.
3. Better Education
City locations typically have the best schools. The options for students seeking a better education are scarce in small towns because there aren't many schools to choose from. Public and private schools, for example, are more numerous and more varied in urban areas. Schools can have lots of teachers to instruct students thanks to urbanization.
Due to the low number of willing teachers in rural areas, there are fewer schools. As a result, the schools would be understaffed, and the students would not have as many teachers as they would have in the city. Cities have superior public and private schools in addition to superior colleges and universities. Students will pursue careers in the fields they are interested in because there are many courses available at the schools.
4. Some People Find Better Housing
The city is a great place to start if you're looking for a place to live. If you want to live close to the locations you want to visit, there are many places to look. There are plenty of apartments in the city that are close to other locations if you can't afford a house.
It would be difficult to find an apartment in a rural area because there aren't many rental apartments there. For those who want to live in a community, this is ideal. Due to the lack of nearby neighbors, this is not an option for residents of small towns. There isn't enough room for many buildings in the area.
5. An Improved Social Life
People from all different backgrounds and occupations can be found in large cities. There are numerous opportunities to interact with various people. Due to the variety of people, you will encounter, you have the chance to learn about various cultures. In the country, it's common to run into the same people every day, so there aren't many opportunities to learn about other cultures.
You have a lot more opportunities to meet new people in larger areas. You might not always encounter the same people, so you can always meet new ones. If you live in a rural area, this might not occur.
6. More Effective Medical Services
Regardless of where you live, healthcare is essential. It's simpler for you to get assistance in a city if you have a medical emergency. To get assistance, there are numerous ways to contact medical facilities. You can use the Internet if you can't get through to the facility by phone.
If you require urgent care, a large number of ambulances are available to take you to the hospital. In the country, it is difficult to travel quickly to the hospital due to the distance. Additionally, there are fewer EMTs available to assist people. Your options for healthcare are constrained because there aren't as many hospitals in the country as there are in the city.
You have options for getting medical care since the city has many hospitals. In order to find a specialist who meets your needs, visit a hospital in a city that has a variety of specialties. You might not have that choice in rural areas because there aren't many doctors there. Mothers can visit Planned Parenthood and other family planning services in the city, where there is greater access to family planning services. Mothers who live in rural areas might not have access to this service.
7. More Police and Security
Because police are on duty 24 hours a day to patrol the area, cities have better security than the rural side. You can get assistance if you need it because the city has many police officers. To aid the police in resolving crimes in the area, CCTV cameras are available. In comparison to rural areas, the police can reach you more quickly. Because of improved communication, the police can reach you more quickly.
In order to speed up the police's arrival, the dispatchers have greater access to technology. The city's technological advancements make it simpler for the police to apprehend criminals. Due to limited access to technology, it may be harder for the police to apprehend criminals in rural areas.
8. Time Can Be Used More Effectively By People
People can now use their time more effectively thanks to urbanization because the overall infrastructure in big cities is typically quite good, and the distances between the various facilities are much shorter.
If you have to take your kids to school, for instance, it might only take you a few minutes in big cities, but it might require a lengthy drive in rural areas. The same is true for many other aspects of daily life, including work. As a result, if you live in a big city, you probably have the opportunity to save a lot of time in every aspect of your daily life and use it instead for enjoyable activities.
9. More Options for Entertainment
Because of the available entertainment, the city is thriving. There is plenty to do both during the day and at night, and people can visit museums, libraries, beaches, casinos, parks, bars, clubs, restaurants, theatres, and other locations.
There are so many things to do in the city that you will never be bored. People in the country do not have all these options because it is small, so there aren't many things to do in terms of entertainment.
10. Tourist Attractions
Major cities are preferred by visitors from all over the world over smaller countries. People can visit a variety of locations throughout the city. Visitors to the city can see monuments, landmarks, museums, and other attractions. Visitors spend a significant amount of money in the city, which benefits the economy. Rural areas aren't typical tourist destinations, so they won't generate as much revenue as they would in a city.
11. There Are More Stores In Cities
You should relocate to a large city if you want more shopping options. Major cities offer a wide variety of malls, as well as shopping malls, supermarkets, and other establishments where you can go shopping. Small towns do not typically have a wide variety of stores. You can only go to so many places to buy the things you want because the towns are too small. If you lived in a rural area, you would have to travel to find different shops to shop in.
12. Access To The Electrical and Sewage System
The fact that the sewage and electricity systems have been improved over time and are now completely worry-free in many major cities is another advantage of urbanization.
Since people are so accustomed to having access to electricity 24 hours a day, they tend to take it for granted. However, there are still people living in rural areas who are not connected to the regional electrical grid. Living in a city means that you should be happy to take advantage of all the amenities of urbanization.
13. Increased Internet Connectivity
Additionally, urbanization increased the demand for sophisticated technologies, which in turn enabled billions of people worldwide to access the internet. The internet can be regarded as one of the biggest and most significant inventions in human history even though there are some issues with it. If used properly, the internet can significantly improve our quality of life.
14. Better Land Utilization
More effective land use can benefit from urbanization. We must utilize our space as effectively as possible because the world's population is rising, and we will soon experience significant levels of overpopulation. Large cities allow for significantly less space per person because they allow for more people to live in smaller flats rather than the large houses found in rural areas.
As a result, urbanization may result in a significant reduction in the overall demand for space per person, which could aid in addressing the issue of a growing global population.
15. Average Higher Wages in Cities
In addition to having significantly better job prospects overall, cities also typically have higher wages. This is because office jobs frequently pay significantly more than physically demanding jobs, and more office jobs are in large cities.
As a result, urbanization also made it possible to work in office jobs that pay well in cities rather than having to perform physically demanding jobs for a low wage.
Disadvantages of Urbanization
1. Dense Population in Urban Areas
Many people relocate to cities for a better quality of life and employment options that they cannot find in smaller towns or village. The problem is that the city is overcrowded due to the many people residing in the small area. If you're accustomed to living in a town without much congestion, this might be too much for you.
When you're riding around, you have to contend with traffic because the streets are always clogged with people. If you depend on public transportation, it will almost always be crowded. You must contend with rush hour traffic in the morning and the evening, which causes you to be late for your appointments. Because there are fewer residents than in a large city, smaller towns move at a slower pace.
2. Purchasing a House Could Be Difficult
There are more homes and apartments available in cities than in rural areas. Unfortunately, there will be more competition for housing in the city as more people move there. Given the number of people looking to buy homes and rent apartments, there may be a mile-long waiting list for a decent place to live, and you may have a protracted search.
If they can't find decent housing, this could result in people living on the streets or moving into undesirable areas. Rural areas don't have this issue because there aren't as many residents and less competition to buy a home there.
3. Regression in Rural Area
The decline of rural areas is one of the major drawbacks of urbanization. With more people moving to urban areas, fewer people will live in the country, resulting in a decline in population there. That community won't be able to expand because there won't be many residents there.
Agricultural production will be hampered by a lack of laborers in the farming sector. Obtaining fruits, vegetables, and other goods from farms will be much more difficult if everyone lives in cities. The agricultural sector, which depends on farmers to cultivate crops and produce, will be significantly impacted by this.
4. Excessive Crime
Due to overpopulation, there is a higher risk of crime in urban areas. There is a greater crime risk than in a smaller town or village because so many people are unemployed. Crime is more likely to occur in poorer neighborhoods than in better ones. Even though there are police present in the areas, crimes continue to occur.
Robberies are one of the most frequent crimes in urban areas because people can't afford to buy things on their own. Residents of small towns may not be used to dealing with a crime on a regular basis and may be surprised by how frequent it can be in a big city. Some people are deterred from moving to the city by the knowledge that crimes can happen at any time and that they might become victims of crimes.
Larger cities may offer more employment opportunities, but there is fierce competition for those positions. Sadly, there are more job seekers than there are open positions. Finding a good job could be challenging due to overcrowding. There are places that are hiring, but thousands of people are vying for the few positions that are open.
Urban areas have a high unemployment rate because there aren't enough jobs available for those who need them. Many people will have to rely on government assistance to make ends meet. Because there aren't as many people competing for jobs in rural towns, unemployment may be less of an issue.
6. The Cost of Living Has Risen
City living is more expensive than countryside or village living. Rent and mortgage payments in cities can be excessive. If you do not earn enough money, it will be difficult to pay your rent or mortgage. Because the city has a lot of technology, your electric bill will be much higher than it would be in the country.
Food is much more expensive because you have to buy it in a store, and you can grow your food in the country, which is much cheaper than buying it in a store. Clothing is also more expensive in urban areas because there are more designer outfits available than in rural areas. If you own a car, you should be aware that gas prices fluctuate throughout the year. Taxes in the city are also higher due to the value of the area, whereas taxes in smaller towns or rural areas may be lower.
7. Lack of Privacy
If you're used to privacy, you'll have to say goodbye in the city. In cities, you are constantly surrounded by people. Neighbors are very close to you, whether you live in a house or an apartment complex. In the countryside , your neighbors aren't all that close, so you can say and do whatever you want.
You lack privacy because your neighbors in apartment buildings are close enough to overhear your conversations. You won't have much privacy if your house is built directly next to another. It makes it easy for your neighbors to peek in your windows, so you'll always have to draw your curtains to keep them from looking in.
8. The Pollution in Urban Areaa
Environments in urban areas are impacted by pollution. Smog is prevalent in the city as a result of poor air quality. Since there are so many cars in the city, you are more likely to be exposed to exhaust fumes, which can be unhealthy for you-many city dwellers smoke cigarettes, which contaminate the air and your lungs. Additionally, smoke from factories and buildings affects air quality.
Loud sirens on emergency vehicles contribute to noise pollution. Noise pollution is constantly being produced by drivers honking their horns, especially during rush hour. If you're used to quietness, you won't find it in the city.