Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used to dynamically assign an IP address to nay device, or node, on a network so they can communicate using IP (Internet Protocol). DHCP automates and centrally manages these configurations. There is no need to manually assign IP addresses to new devices. Therefore, there is no requirement for any user configuration to connect to a DHCP based network.
DHCP can be implemented on local networks as well as large enterprise networks. DHCP is the default protocol used by the most routers and networking equipment. DHCP is also called RFC (Request for comments) 2131.
DHCP does the following:
DHCP is also used to configure the proper subnet mask, default gateway and DNS server information on the node or device.
There are many versions of DCHP are available for use in IPV4 (Internet Protocol Version 4) and IPV6 (Internet Protocol Version 6).
How DHCP works
DHCP runs at the application layer of the TCP/IP protocol stack to dynamically assign IP addresses to DHCP clients/nodes and to allocate TCP/IP configuration information to the DHCP clients. Information includes subnet mask information, default gateway, IP addresses and domain name system addresses.
DHCP is based on client-server protocol in which servers manage a pool of unique IP addresses, as well as information about client configuration parameters, and assign addresses out of those address pools.
The DHCP lease process works as follows:
Components of DHCP
When working with DHCP, it is important to understand all of the components. Following are the list of components:
Benefits of DHCP
There are following benefits of DHCP:
Centralized administration of IP configuration: DHCP IP configuration information can be stored in a single location and enables that administrator to centrally manage all IP address configuration information.
Dynamic host configuration: DHCP automates the host configuration process and eliminates the need to manually configure individual host. When TCP/IP (Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol) is first deployed or when IP infrastructure changes are required.
Seamless IP host configuration: The use of DHCP ensures that DHCP clients get accurate and timely IP configuration IP configuration parameter such as IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, IP address of DND server and so on without user intervention.
Flexibility and scalability: Using DHCP gives the administrator increased flexibility, allowing the administrator to move easily change IP configuration when the infrastructure changes.