What is Nutrition?
Nutrition is the part of health and development that interprets the nutrients and other food substances to maintain an organism's growth, reproduction, and disease. It includes ingestion, absorption, biosynthesis, catabolism, excretion, and assimilation.
An organism's diet is what it eats, which is largely determined by the availability and palatability of foods. Better nutrition is related to the improved infant, child and maternal health, stronger immune systems, safer pregnancy and childbirth, lower risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Nutrients can be grouped as either macronutrients or micronutrients.
For humans, a healthy diet includes the preparation of food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduces the risk of foodborne illnesses.
In humans, an unhealthy diet can cause deficiency-related diseases such as anemia, scurvy, blindness, stillbirth, preterm >birth, and cretinism, or nutrient excess health-threatening conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome and such common chronic systemic diseases. Lack of nutrition can lead to wasting in acute cases and the stunting of marasmus in chronic malnutrition cases.
People with adequate nutrition are more productive and can create opportunities to gradually break the cycles of poverty and hunger.
Malnutrition, in every form, presents significant threats to human health. Today the world faces a double burden of malnutrition that includes undernutrition and overweight, especially in low- and middle-income countries.
WHO provides scientific advice and decision-making tools to help countries address all forms of malnutrition to support health and well-being for all ages.
This fact file explores the risks posed by all forms of malnutrition, starting from the earliest stages of development, and the responses that the health system can give directly and through its influence on other sectors, particularly the food system.
Poor nutrition can lead to a lack of energy, digestive problems, food allergies, weight gain, depression and anxiety, as well as many of today's most prevalent chronic diseases like coronary heart disease, cancer, ADHA. Having nutritional knowledge and making informed choices about the foods you eat can help you achieve optimum health over your lifetime.
Nutritionist advises people on what to eat and how to modify their diet to maintain or restore optimal health or help relieve ill health and combat disease.
There is almost daily advice in the media on what to eat, and what not to eat and drink, most of it is confusing and contradictory. Celebrity chefs and fine dining have continued to grow in popularity.
Naturopathic nutrition seeks to uncover and support a disease's cause, rather than just treating the symptoms as conventional medicine often does. Many people find that improving a poor diet to cure one symptom can often lead to other health benefits such as increased energy levels, skin improvements, and better sleep, amongst many other benefits.
The major classes of human nutrients are macronutrients and micronutrients, such as:
Macronutrients are nutrients that people need in relatively large quantities. These nutrients are carbohydrates, fiber, fats, proteins and water.
Sugar, starch, and fiber are types of carbohydrates.
Sugars are simple carbohydrates. The body quickly breaks down and absorbs sugars and processed starch. They can provide rapid energy, but they do not leave a person feeling full. They can also cause a spike in blood sugar levels. Frequent sugar spikes increase the risk of diabetes and its complications.
Fiber is also a carbohydrate. The body breaks down some fiber types and uses them for energy; others are metabolized by gut bacteria, while other types pass through the body.
Fiber and unprocessed starch are complex carbs. It takes the body some time to break down and absorb complex carbs. After eating fiber, a person will feel full for longer. Fiber may also reduce the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and colorectal cancer. Complex carbs are a more healthful choice than sugars and refined carbs.
Proteins consist of amino acids, which are organic compounds that occur naturally.
There are 20 amino acids. Some of these are essential, which means people need to obtain them from food. The body can make others.
Some foods provide complete protein, which means they contain all the essential amino acids the body needs. Other foods contain various combinations of amino acids.
Most plant-based foods do not contain complete protein, so a person who follows a vegan diet needs to eat various foods throughout the day that provide the essential amino acids.
Fats are essential for:
Too much fat can lead to obesity, high cholesterol, liver disease, and other health problems.
However, the type of fat a person eats makes a difference. Unsaturated fats, such as olive oil, are more healthful than saturated fats, which tend to come from animals.
The adult human body is up to 60% water, and it needs water for many processes. Water contains no calories, and it does not provide energy.
Many people recommend consuming 2 liters, or 8 glasses, of water a day, but it can also come from dietary sources, such as fruit and vegetables. Adequate hydration will result in pale yellow urine.
Requirements will also depend on an individual's body size and age, environmental factors, activity levels, health status, and so on.
Micronutrients are essential in small amounts. Manufacturers sometimes add these to foods. They include vitamins and minerals.
The body needs carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. It also needs dietary minerals, such as iron, potassium, and so on.
In most cases, a varied and balanced diet will provide the minerals a person needs. If a deficiency occurs, a doctor may recommend supplements. Here are some of the minerals the body needs to function well.
People need small amounts of various vitamins. Some of these, such as vitamin C, are also antioxidants. This means they help protect cells from damage by removing toxic molecules, known as free radicals, from the body. Vitamins can be:
Some nutrients also act as antioxidants. These may be vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other types of molecules.
They help the body remove toxic substances known as free radicals or reactive oxygen species. If too many of these substances remain in the body, cell damage and disease can result.
Nutrition is the study of food and how it affects the body. People need to consume a varied diet to obtain a wide range of nutrients.
Some people choose to follow a specific diet, in which they focus on certain foods and avoid others. People who do this may need to plan carefully to ensure they obtain all the necessary vitamins to maintain their health.
A diet rich in plant-based foods limits added animal fats, processed foods, and added sugar and salt is most likely to benefit a person's health. Below are the different diets, such as: