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Difference Between C and Python

C Language

A static type system helps to prevent numerous unwanted actions in the general-purpose, imperative computer programming language C, which also supports structured programming, lexical variable scope, and recursion. Operating systems, as well as other software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems that had previously been programmed in assembly language, have found ongoing use in C because it is designed to give constructs that map effectively to conventional machine instructions.

Difference Between C and Python

You can use the C language on different platforms. A C program that is written by following the rules of code standards is accepted by most operating systems. The language is now available on a highly diverse spectrum of hardware, from supercomputers to embedded microcontrollers. Dennis Ritchie created C between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs, which was used to reimplement the Unix operating system. C compilers are now accessible for most current computer architectures and operating systems, making them one of the most commonly used programming languages.

Common Compilers

Operating systems and compilers have different ways of compiling a C program. Most operating systems don't have a compiler, so you'll need to install one.

Some commonly used compilers are:

  • GCC, the GNU Compiler Collection
  • Clang: C language family front-end for LLVM
  • MSVC, Microsoft Visual C/C++ build tools

You may obtain a decent idea of how to get started using a couple of the most popular compilers from the documents listed below:

  • Getting started with Microsoft Visual C
  • Getting started with GCC

Original "Hello, World!" in K&R C

The original "Hello, World!" program may be found in the book "The C Programming Language" by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie, also known as "K&R."

A simple hello world program in c language

  • #include <stdio.h>- This line brings the content from the standard library to the current code. To use header files, which often contain function declarations, macros, and data types, you must first include the header file.
  • int main () -Program execution starts in the main() function.
  • In C programs, every line of code must end with a semi-colone.;

Arrays in C

Arrays are derived data types in C, which contain the values within curly brackets and can be used to implement higher data types like Stack, and Queue. Arrays in C have a limited number of elements as restricted by their size, which can be set while defining an array. Elements in the array are stored in contiguous memory. C allows multidimensional Arrays like 2-D and 3D arrays whose elements are array. The size of an array can be determined during the run time also. The Syntax for defining arrays:

type name[length]; /* Define an array of 'type' with name 'name' and length' length.' */

  • int arr[10] = {0}; /* Created an array and set ALL of its elements to 0. */
  • int arr[] = {87, 2,46, 1}; /* Define and initialize an array of length 4. */
  • arr[n] = value; /* Set value at index n. */
  • value = arr[n]; /* Get value at index n. */

Setting Values in Arrays

Elements of an array can be accessed by putting index value Index square brackets.

Multidimensional Array

The C programming language supports multidimensional arrays. A multidimensional array can be assumed as a matrix with r rows and c columns. We can create a 3-D array by giving the three values of three coordinates in the three square brackets.

For example,

int arr[7][6][4];

Two-Dimensional Arrays

Generally, a two-dimensional array is a collection of one-dimensional arrays. We can define a two-dimensional integer array with dimensions m x n in the way shown below:

Difference Between C and Python

Data Types in C

In C programming, data types are declarations for variables. They determine the type and size of data associated with variables.

Fundamental/Basic Data Types in C are:

Type Size (in Bytes) Range
Char 1 -128 to 127
Int 2 -32768 to 32767
Float 4 -3.4e38 to +3.4e38
Double 8 -1.7e308 to + 1.7e308
Long 4 -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,648
Unsigned Char 1 0 to 255
Unsigned Int 2 0 to 65535
Unsigned Long 4 0 to 4,294,967,295
Long double 10 -1.7e932 to +1.7e932
  • Integer -Integer (int) is used to store whole numbers in variables example: 2,78, 3 etc.
  • Character - char includes the unique alphabets, such as 'h' etc.
  • Double -The number greater than the size of int or out of its range, comes under this category.
  • Floating-Point -These are all the decimal points or real number values, such as 3.14,, etc.
  • Void -It means 'Nothing and has no meaning at all. This data type is typically used when a program's functions are defined.

Signed and Unsigned Modifiers in C

The type modifiers Signed and Unsigned are used in C. Using these, you can modify how a data type stores its data:

  • Signed: Both positive and negative numbers can be stored.
  • Unsigned: Allows only positive numbers.

Derived Datatypes

Data types derived from the basic data types are called derived data types. For example, functions, arrays, pointers, structures, enums, etc.

Iteration Statements/Loops

There are three types of iteration statements in C language: For, While, and Do-While loops.

1. For Loop

When a piece of code needs to be run a predetermined number of times, the for loop should be used. For instance, we need to call printf() n times to display the elements of an array of size n, but, by using For loop, we can easily perform this in limited execution.

The Syntax of a for loop in C programming language is:


2. While Loop

The while loop is used when a section of code needs to run until a condition does not become false. The Syntax of a while loop in C programming language is:


3. Do-while Loop

In this type of loop, the condition is tested after executing the statement once. If the condition is true, the statement executes one more time. Otherwise, the loops end. The Syntax of a do-while loop in C programming language is:


Operators in C

In a programming language, an operator is a symbol that instructs the compiler or interpreter to carry out a certain task and generate the expected result. C has many powerful operators.

Types of Operators in C

  1. Unary (++, --): Unary operator operates on a single operand. Example: a++, b-- .
  2. Binary (/): Binary operator operates on two operands. Example: 10/5.
  3. Ternary (?): Ternary operator operates on three operands.

Example: a>b? a: c

Operators Associativity
() [] -> left to right
! ~ ++ -- + - * right to left
* / % left to right
+ - left to right
<< >> left to right
< <= > >= left to right
== != left to right
& left to right
^ left to right
| left to right
&& left to right
|| left to right
?: right to left
= += -= *= /= %= &= ^= |= <<= >>= right to left
, left to right
  • Precedence:Which operators "bind" to their operands first is determined by precedence. For instance, the C programming language abides by the rule that addition and subtraction come after multiplication and division.
  • Associativity: Associativity describes how equal-precedence operators bind by default: Left-to-Right and Right-to-Left.

Pointers in C

A pointer is a variable that can store the address of another object or a function. The definition's meaning is unaffected by the asterisk's placement.

Each pointer, however, needs its asterisk when more than one is defined simultaneously:


Python is a powerful, open-source, object-oriented, high-level, and popular programming language. The libraries of Python are popular in the field of Data Science, where most of the work is automated. It provides easy integration with web services and GUI (Graphical User Interface) based desktop applications. Extensively used in Data Science and for developing Machine Learning projects. It was started by Guido van Rossum in 1991 at CWI (Centrum Wiskunde Informatica) in Netherlands.

Difference Between C and Python

Guido Van Rossum

There are Two Primary Versions of Python

The most recent version, Python 3.x, is still improving. Until 2020, Python 2. x, a legacy version, will only get security updates. No new functions will be added. Even though upgrading to Python 3 is becoming simpler, many projects continue to utilize Python 2.

Features of Python

  • High-Level: Python automates basic tasks like memory management. Although it gives the programmer a little less control because of the absence of pointers, it offers several advantages, such as easier code reading and fewer code expressions.
  • General Purpose: Python was created uniquely for front-end and back-end development. HTML is a front-end language, and Ruby is a back-end language. On the other hand, Python may be used to create desktop and server-side web applications.
  • Dynamically Typed: The variable type is determined only during runtime. Example
  • Strongly Typed: It means that during program execution, you are not allowed to do anything incompatible with the type of data you are working with. The type of a value only changes if you change it explicitly.
  • Beginner Friendly: The Syntax for writing code in Python is very short compared to other programming languages, making the code clean, attractive, and easy to understand.

Hello, World Program in Python

Data Types in Python

Difference Between C and Python

Booleans It includes a Boolean value of either True or False.

  • x or y -> in the OR operator only checks the first value. If it is true, the result is true.
  • x and y -> in the AND operator, it checks the first value; if it is true, then it goes for the second value; otherwise result is false.
  • not x -> the NOT operator gives the opposite result.


  • Int: Int-type numbers contain random whole numbers.
  • Float: Floating point number contains values with decimals.
  • a = 2.0, b = 100.e0, c = 123489.e1
  • Complex: Complex numbers
  • a = 2 + 1j, b = 100 + 10j

Dictionary: An unordered collection of unique key-value pairs.

a = {1: 'one,' 2: 'two'}

Set: An unordered collection of unique values.

a = {1, 2, 'p'}


  • String: It is a collection of characters.
  • Tuple: An ordered collection of n values of any type is called a tuple.
  • a = (1, 2, 3)
  • List: An ordered collection of n values
  • a = [1, 2, 3] b = ['a', 1, 'ABC,' [1, 2]]

Arrays in Python

Arrays in Python are very similar to lists. The difference arises when we discuss the type of data stored in a List and array. A list can store any data; on the other hand, an array can store only a single type of data.

The Syntax for defining an array:

Variable_name = array(type code, [elements])

As an array is not a fundamental data type, we must import an array module to use its methods.

From array import *

The above line will import all methods of the array module.

Another way to import an array:

Import array as arr

In Python, also indexes start from 0


Different Array Methods

1. Append ():Add a new element at the end of the array.


2. Insert (): Insert an element at a particular index position.


3. Extend ():This method merges two arrays.


4. From list (): Using this method, we can add items from the list into an array.


5. Remove (): Using this method, we can remove any element from an array.


6. Pop (): Using this method, we can delete the last element of an array.


7. Index (): Using this method, we can find the index of the central element.


8. Reverse (): Using this method, we can reverse the sequence of elements on an array.


9. Buffer_info (): This method provides the starting address of buffer memory and the number of elements in the array.


10. Tostring (): Using this method, we can convert the array to a string.


11. Count (): This method returns the number of times an element occurred in an array.


12. Tolist(): This method can convert an array to a list.


Functions in Python

When we want to use a particular segment of code several times, we can write the code by declaring a function of it and use it anytime by just calling it. Python functions offer organized, reusable, and modular code to carry out tasks. Functions make coding faster by streamlining the process, avoiding unnecessary logic, and improving readability. Python has some useful predefined functions like print(), len(), input(), etc. You can create your functions by using the given Syntax.

The Syntax for Defining a Function in Python

def function_name(parameters):


Some examples of functions are given below:

Function to Calculate the Factorial of a Number

Function to Print Fibonacci Series

OOPs (Object Oriented Programming) in Python

OOPs is a programming concept of using classes and objects for various tasks. Using OOPs, a user can create its own data type and functions that perform tasks as guided by the user.

OOPs, Features

  • Classes and Objects
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction

1. lasses and Objects

Class is a blueprint for an object. An object is a physical or real entity that works on class data. Constructor is a special function that gets automatically called when the object of the class is created. There are mainly two types of constructors

  • Default Constructor: It is also called an empty constructor because it does not have any parameters.
  • Parameterized Constructor: It can be created by the user according to their needs of parameters.

2. Inheritance

When we define a class that inherits all the properties of the parent class, this concept is called inheritance.

3. Polymorphism

Polymorphism means we can perform a single task in many other ways. The same object has different behavior in different conditions.

4. Encapsulation

Python provides access to all the variables and methods globally. By using encapsulation, we can restrict the variables and methods access globally by making them private or protected.

5. Abstraction

By using abstraction, the user is shielded from implementation; only the highlighted set of services is provided to the user.

Comparison Between C and Python

C language Python language
Difficult to learn as compared to Python. Being a user-friendly language, it is easy to learn.
C has a lesser number of libraries than Python. Python has a huge collection of useful libraries.
Pointers play a major role in C. There is no concept of pointers in Python.
It is based on structured programming. It is an interpreted language.
High speed of execution. Slow speed of execution.
Memory management is done by the programmer. It has an automatic garbage collector.
It is compulsory to declare the data type of a variable. Type declaration is not required in Python.
C has three loop types:
For loop, while loop, and do-while loop.
There are only two loop types:
For loop and While loop.
Architecture language General purpose language.
C has switch statements. Python does not have any switch statements.
C has no such concept of exception handling. Python allows exception handling.

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