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Embedded System Project: Fire Detection and Control System


Fire Sense using 8051 Microcontroller and Flame Sensor

To avoid all the problems mentioned about the current fire fighting system and to have a better and reliable security system against fire accidents. There is used fire sensor which senses fire. If fire start, motor turn ON. If there is not firing, motor is turn OFF.

REQUIREMENTS:

  1. MICROCONTROLLER 89C2051 (8051)
  2. CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
  3. RESISTORS
  4. DIODES
  5. TRANSFORMER
  6. CAPACITORS
  7. CONNECTORS
  8. DC MOTOR
  9. RELAY
  10. BUZZER
  11. FLAME SENSOR

Aim of the Project

Our aim is to design such project that sense fire. When there will be firing, motor will turn ON and water is start otherwise motor will be turn OFF.

In places where such systems were installed it was seldom observed that they posed more problems than solutions. For example, many times the sprinklers went off because of the smoke caused by some harmless reason thereby creating a lot of mess and nuisance even when there was no fire. Thus a problem of false alarm was there. Not only this, in places like offices, museums, etc. sometimes when a small fire broke out, the damage caused by the water sprinklers, by spoiling the important paperwork, electronic items or pieces of art and history, was more than what the fire could have caused.


Block Diagram

Consider the block diagram of fire sensing circuit using microcontroller and flame sensor as key component is:-

Embedded System Project1

Working of the Project

This project comprises microcontroller one is for decision making. Fire sensor is for sensing fire. There is used fire sensor which senses fire. If fire start, motor turn ON. If there is not firing, motor is turn OFF. In this project we use 89c2051.

Circuit Diagram

Embedded System Project2

Circuit Description

POWER SUPPLY SECTION:

  1. RLMT Connector- It is a connector used to connect the step down transformer to the bridge rectifier.
  2. Capacitor- It is an electrolytic capacitor of rating 1000M/35V used to remove the ripples. Capacitor is the component used to pass the ac and block the dc.
  3. Regulator- LM7805 is used to give a fixed 5v regulated supply.
  4. Capacitor- It is again an electrolytic capacitor 10M/65v used for filtering to give pure dc.
  5. Capacitor- It is a ceramic capacitor used to remove the spikes generated when frequency is high (spikes). So the output of supply section is 5v regulated dc.

Microcontroller Section

  1. +5v supply-This +5v supply is required for the controller to get start which is provided from the power supply section. This supply is provided at pin no. 20 of the 89c2051 controller.
  2. Crystal Oscillator- A crystal oscillator of 12 MHz is connected at pin no.5, x1 and pin no.4, x2 to generate the frequency for the controller. The crystal oscillator works on piezoelectric effect. The clock generated is used to determine the processing speed of the controller. Two capacitors are also connected one end with the oscillator while the other end is connected with the ground.
  3. Reset section- It consists of an RC network consisting of capacitor and one resistance of 1k. This section is used to reset the controller connected at pin no.1 of AT89c2051.

Source Code:





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B.Tech / MCA