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Check String Are Permutation of Each Other in Java

In mathematics and computer science, where the order of items counts, permutations are fascinating topics. Permutations in the context of strings are defined as the rearranging of characters inside a given string to create a new arrangement. In this section, we will discuss string permutations in Java, their characteristics in particular, techniques for figuring out whether two strings are permutations of one another and some real-world uses.

What is Permutations?

An arrangement of a set's components in a certain order is known as a permutation of a set in mathematics. A permutation for a string is the rearranging of characters in a string. Think about the letter "ABC." There are several ways to arrange it: "ABC," "ACB," "BAC," "BCA," "CAB," and "CBA." Every permutation is a unique way to arrange the same characters.

Properties of String Permutations

  • Same Length: Two strings can only be permutations of each other if they have the same length. If the lengths differ, they cannot possibly be permutations.
  • Same Characters: For strings to be permutations of each other, they must contain the same set of characters. While the order may vary, the characters themselves must be identical. For instance, "ABC" and "CBA" are permutations, but "ABC" and "ACD" are not.

Several methods can be employed to determine if two strings are permutations of each other. Here, we discuss two common approaches:

Sorting Approach

Sorting both strings is a straightforward method to check for permutation. If two strings are permutations, sorting them will result in identical sequences of characters.


  1. Sort both strings.
  2. Compare the sorted strings character by character.
  3. If all characters' match, the strings are permutations; otherwise, they are not.


The strings are permutations of each other.

Time Complexity

The sorting approach has a time complexity of O(n log n), where n is the length of the strings. Sorting the strings takes the majority of the time in this method.

Character Counting Approach

Another approach involves comparing the frequency of characters in both strings. If the character counts are identical, the strings are permutations.


  1. Create an array or a hash table to store the count of each character for both strings.
  2. Iterate through each character in the first string and increment its count.
  3. Iterate through each character in the second string and decrement its count.
  4. If all counts are zero, the strings are permutations; otherwise, they are not.


The strings are permutations of each other.

Time Complexity

The character counting approach has a time complexity of O(n), where n is the length of the strings. It requires iterating through each character and updating the character counts.

Handling Case Sensitivity and Whitespace

Whitespace and case sensitivity must be taken into account when comparing text for permutations. As "abc" and "ABC" are not case-sensitive characters by default, they are not considered permutations by most algorithms. Similarly, spaces and other whitespace characters are treated as distinct characters. If case insensitivity or whitespace removal is desired, preprocessing the strings accordingly can ensure accurate results.

Efficiency Considerations

For scenarios where string permutations need to be checked repeatedly, it is worth considering optimizing the approach. It is possible to improve the efficiency of subsequent permutation checks by pre-calculating and storing the character counts or sorted versions of the strings. This can be especially helpful in applications like real-time systems or large-scale data processing when performance is essential.

Handling Large Strings

When dealing with large strings, the memory usage of certain algorithms can become a concern. Sorting the entire string requires additional memory proportional to the string lengths. In such cases, it may be more efficient to use the character counting approach, as it requires less memory overhead.


Comprehending string permutations is an essential notion in computer science and a flexible instrument with uses across multiple fields. The complex dance of characters within strings offers a vast terrain for investigation, ranging from cryptography to database optimization. The benefits and problems brought about by the variations of strings also change with technology.

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