Exception Handling in Java
The Exception Handling in Java is one of the powerful mechanism to handle the runtime errors so that normal flow of the application can be maintained.
In this page, we will learn about Java exceptions, its type and the difference between checked and unchecked exceptions.
What is Exception in Java
Dictionary Meaning: Exception is an abnormal condition.
In Java, an exception is an event that disrupts the normal flow of the program. It is an object which is thrown at runtime.
What is Exception Handling
Exception Handling is a mechanism to handle runtime errors such as ClassNotFoundException, IOException, SQLException, RemoteException, etc.
Advantage of Exception Handling
The core advantage of exception handling is to maintain the normal flow of the application. An exception normally disrupts the normal flow of the application that is why we use exception handling. Let's take a scenario:
Suppose there are 10 statements in your program and there occurs an exception at statement 5, the rest of the code will not be executed i.e. statement 6 to 10 will not be executed. If we perform exception handling, the rest of the statement will be executed. That is why we use exception handling in Java.
Hierarchy of Java Exception classes
The java.lang.Throwable class is the root class of Java Exception hierarchy which is inherited by two subclasses: Exception and Error. A hierarchy of Java Exception classes are given below:
Types of Java Exceptions
There are mainly two types of exceptions: checked and unchecked. Here, an error is considered as the unchecked exception. According to Oracle, there are three types of exceptions:
Difference between Checked and Unchecked Exceptions
1) Checked Exception
The classes which directly inherit Throwable class except RuntimeException and Error are known as checked exceptions e.g. IOException, SQLException etc. Checked exceptions are checked at compile-time.
2) Unchecked Exception
The classes which inherit RuntimeException are known as unchecked exceptions e.g. ArithmeticException, NullPointerException, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException etc. Unchecked exceptions are not checked at compile-time, but they are checked at runtime.
Error is irrecoverable e.g. OutOfMemoryError, VirtualMachineError, AssertionError etc.
Java Exception Keywords
There are 5 keywords which are used in handling exceptions in Java.
Java Exception Handling Example
Let's see an example of Java Exception Handling where we using a try-catch statement to handle the exception.Test it Now
Exception in thread main java.lang.ArithmeticException:/ by zero rest of the code...
In the above example, 100/0 raises an ArithmeticException which is handled by a try-catch block.
Common Scenarios of Java Exceptions
There are given some scenarios where unchecked exceptions may occur. They are as follows:
1) A scenario where ArithmeticException occurs
If we divide any number by zero, there occurs an ArithmeticException.
2) A scenario where NullPointerException occurs
If we have a null value in any variable, performing any operation on the variable throws a NullPointerException.
3) A scenario where NumberFormatException occurs
The wrong formatting of any value may occur NumberFormatException. Suppose I have a string variable that has characters, converting this variable into digit will occur NumberFormatException.
4) A scenario where ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException occurs
If you are inserting any value in the wrong index, it would result in ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException as shown below:
Java Exceptions Index