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How to Create Dynamic SQL Query in Java?

With the help of Java's dynamic SQL queries, we can create and execute SQL statements instantly, giving your database interactions flexibility and adaptability. In this section, we will discuss the process of writing dynamic SQL queries in Java in this article, which includes comprehensive code examples and full explanations.


Make sure we have the necessary equipment and information before we start:

  1. Java Programming Environment: Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA are two examples of Java programming environments we will require.
  2. Database Setup: Have a database, such as MySQL or PostgreSQL, installed and operational. The required database drivers should also be installed on your project.
  3. Understanding Java Database Connectivity (JDBC), which is the Java API for connecting to relational databases, is crucial.

Importance of Dynamic SQL Queries

In situations where you cannot know the exact SQL statement at compile time, dynamic SQL queries are crucial. Typical use cases comprise:

  1. User Input: When users enter data into a database to search, filter, or alter it. Consider a search function where the user may enter search parameters.
  2. Runtime Conditions: Circumstances in which we must modify your queries in response to the runtime circumstances. It might entail altering the columns that are chosen, sorting standards, or filters.
  3. Complex Queries: These need to be built when you want to use many conditions, joins, or dynamic subqueries in your SQL statements.
  4. Dynamic Table Names: When the names of the tables or schema are chosen at runtime, like in the case of multi-tenant systems.

Dynamic SQL Construction

We must build the SQL statement as a string at runtime to make dynamic SQL queries. To construct the SQL query to meet your needs, use conditional logic, string concatenation, or StringBuilder.

We may dynamically filter data, for example, by altering the searchCriteria and the SQL query in response to user input or runtime conditions.

Database Connection

A connection to your database must be established before creating dynamic SQL queries. Typically, JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) is used to establish a connection with the database server. To handle connections effectively, connection pools are frequently employed in commercial systems.

Step 1: Set Up Your Database Connection

First, establish a connection to your database. Here is an example of how to do it using JDBC:

Step 2: Construct Dynamic SQL Queries

Dynamic SQL queries are built based on runtime conditions or user inputs. Let's consider a simple example where we want to retrieve records from a database table with a dynamic WHERE clause.

Users Table

How to Create Dynamic SQL Query in Java


User ID: 1, Name: John
User ID: 3, Name: John

In this example, we use a PreparedStatement to construct the SQL query dynamically by replacing the? with the actual search criteria value (searchCriteria).

Step 3: Execute and Handle the Query

Execute your dynamic SQL query when you've prepared it, then handle the outcomes appropriately. In the aforementioned example, we get data from the database and use the while loop to handle it.

Advanced Methods

Dynamic sorting, many criteria, and even the choice of several columns may make dynamic SQL queries rather difficult. Consider utilizing StringBuilder or String concatenation to generate the dynamic SQL query as necessary to address more complex cases.

To make your code clearer and easier to maintain, we may also build methods and classes to encapsulate the development of dynamic queries.

Security Considerations

SQL injection threats should be avoided by using dynamic SQL queries carefully. To reduce security concerns, always verify and sanitize user inputs and employ prepared statements like in the example.


Java's support for dynamic SQL queries gives you more freedom when working with your database. At runtime, you can modify your queries to meet certain needs. We may utilize the power of dynamic SQL queries in your Java applications by following the procedures given in this book and taking security best practices into account.

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