Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Java Best Practices

Java is a highly versatile, platform-independent programming language renowned for its write-once, run-anywhere capability. Its extensive adoption across diverse domains, including web and mobile application development, is attributed to its robust features and the extensive backing from the developer community.

Java is like the instructions we give to the robot using special Lego blocks. These instructions can work for different robots without needing major changes. It is because Java has a clever system called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that understands these instructions and makes them work on various computers.

1. Clear and Intuitive Naming Conventions:

In Java, naming things well is like giving our code a user-friendly interface. When others (or even ourself) read the code, good names make it easier to understand what's happening. Here are some tips for clear and intuitive naming conventions:

  1. Variables and Fields:
    • Use meaningful names that describe the purpose of the variable.
    • For multi-word names, follow the camelCase convention (e.g., totalAmount, customerName).
  2. Methods:
    • Choose method names that reflect the action they perform.
    • Use verbs to denote actions (e.g., calculateTotal, getUserInfo).
  3. Classes:
    • Name classes as nouns, representing the main entity or concept they encapsulate.
    • Use capitalization for each word in a class name (e.g., CarModel, CustomerService).
  4. Constants:
    • If we have values that won't change, use constants (variables with final keyword) and name them in uppercase with underscores (e.g., MAX_VALUE, DEFAULT_TIMEOUT).
  5. Packages:
    • Organize related classes into packages.
    • Use lowercase letters for package names (e.g., com.example.project).

2. Commenting and Writing Self-Documenting Code:

In the world of programming, good communication is key. Humans read code, and well-commented, self-documenting code makes it easier for others (or even ourself) to understand its logic and purpose. Here's how we can strike the right balance:

  1. Use Comments Wisely:
    • Explain complex logic or algorithms.
    • Focus on "why" over "what" to provide reasoning.
  2. Avoid Redundant Comments:
    • Let well-named variables and methods speak for themselves.
    • Avoid stating the obvious; prioritize clarity.
  3. Keep Comments Updated:
    • Update comments when code changes to prevent confusion.
    • Outdated comments can be more problematic than none.

3. Proper handling of Null Pointer Exceptions

Handling null pointer exceptions is crucial for writing robust and reliable Java code. Here are some best practices for proper handling of null pointer exceptions:

1. Null Checks:

  • Always check for null before invoking methods or accessing fields on an object.
  • Use explicit null checks, such as if (variable != null), to ensure we are not operating on a null reference.

2. Optional Class:

  • Consider using the Optional class for more expressive null-handling.
  • It can make one's code more readable and force developers to explicitly handle cases where a value might be absent.

4. Avoid memory leaks

Avoiding memory leaks is crucial for maintaining the performance and stability of the Java applications. Memory leaks can occur when objects are not properly deallocated, leading to a gradual increase in memory usage.

Best Practices:

  1. Release Resources Timely:
    • Always release resources, such as database connections, after use. Utilize the finally block to ensure proper resource cleanup.
  2. Static Tables and Memory Management:
    • Be cautious with instances stored in static tables, as they can lead to memory leakages. Ensure proper handling and release of static resources.

Tools for Detecting Memory Leaks:

  1. Memory Tab in IntelliJ IDEA:
    • IntelliJ IDEA, a popular Java IDE, provides a built-in Memory tab allowing developers to view all objects' details. The feature is invaluable for detecting memory leaks and understanding their causes.
  2. NetBeans Profiler:
    • NetBeans Profiler is a comprehensive tool for analyzing memory usage in various Java applications, including Java FX, Java SE, EJB, mobile, and web applications.
  3. Memory Analyzer (MAT) in Eclipse:
    • Eclipse offers the Memory Analyzer tool (MAT), enabling Java developers to detect potential memory leakages and analyze heap dumps, even when dealing with large sets of objects.

5. Float or double?

The choice between float and double in Java depends on the precision requirements of the application. Here are some considerations to help us decide when to use float and when to use double:

  1. Precision:
    • double provides higher precision compared to float. It is a 64-bit floating-point type, while float is a 32-bit floating-point type.
    • Use double if precision is critical for the calculations, especially in scientific or financial applications.
  2. Memory Usage:
    • double uses more memory than float because it is a 64-bit type. If memory efficiency is a concern, and the required precision can be satisfied with a 32-bit floating-point type, consider using float.
  3. Default Type for Floating-Point Literals:
    • Floating-point literals in Java are treated as double by default. If we need a float literal, append an 'f' or 'F' to the value.

6. Use Java libraries ergonomically

Using Java libraries efficiently involves understanding their documentation, managing dependencies wisely, optimizing imports, following best practices, handling exceptions appropriately, considering thread safety, integrating logging, prioritizing security, ensuring compatibility, writing tests, profiling performance, seeking community support, and maintaining code readability. These practices contribute to a more robust and manageable software development process.

7. No Empty Catch Blocks

Let's break down the practical coding tips and practices related to catch blocks in Java based on the provided content:

Practical Tips and Practices for Catch Blocks:

  1. Avoid Empty Catch Blocks:
    • While technically permissible, empty catch blocks in Java are discouraged.
    • Empty catch blocks provide no diagnostic information about encountered issues, complicating debugging.
    • Comprehensive exception handling is essential to facilitate effective issue diagnosis and resolution.
  2. Provide Meaningful Exception Handling:
    • When an exception is caught, implement appropriate error-handling mechanisms, or at the very least, log the exception for subsequent analysis.
    • Logging exceptions is instrumental in tracing the origins of issues during the debugging phase.
  3. Avoid Catching Generic Exceptions:
    • Strive to catch specific exceptions rather than opting for a generic catch (Exception e).
    • Utilizing specific exception handling allows for targeted and precise management of various error scenarios, enhancing the granularity of error reporting and resolution.
  4. Use Finally Block Wisely:
    • Use the finally block if cleanup operations or tasks must be performed regardless of whether an exception occurred.
    • The finally block ensures that certain code is executed, making it suitable for resource cleanup.
  • The catch block is not empty. It logs the NumberFormatException and provides an opportunity to handle the exception in a way that suits the application.
  • The finally block is optional and can be used for cleanup operations.

8. Follow SOLID Principles

The SOLID principles are a set of five design principles that, when followed, lead to more maintainable and scalable software. Each letter in the SOLID acronym represents one of these principles. Let's briefly outline each principle:

  1. Single Responsibility Principle (SRP):
    • A class should have one responsibility.
    • Encourages creating classes focused on specific tasks.
  2. Open/Closed Principle (OCP):
    • Software entities should be open for extension but closed for modification.
    • Use abstractions to allow adding functionality through new classes.
  3. Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP):
    • Subtypes should be substitutable for their base types without affecting the program's correctness.
    • Carefully override methods to maintain consistency.
  4. Interface Segregation Principle (ISP):
    • Clients should not be forced to implement interfaces they don't use.
    • Design interfaces tailored to client needs.
  5. Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP):
    • High-level modules should not depend on low-level modules.
    • Use dependency injection to invert control and depend on abstractions.


Let's discuss two important principles in software development: DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) and KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid).

1. DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself):

  1. Principle:
    • DRY encourages avoiding duplication of code and promotes reusing existing code.
  2. Practice:
    • Identify repetitive patterns in code and extract them into reusable functions, methods, or classes.
    • Use functions or modules to encapsulate common functionalities.
    • Maintain a single source of truth for a piece of knowledge or logic.
  3. Benefits:
    • Maintainability: Changes must be made in only one place, reducing the risk of inconsistencies.
    • Readability: Code becomes more concise and easier to understand.
    • Efficiency: Development and debugging time can be reduced.

2. KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid):

  1. Principle:
    • KISS advocates for simplicity in design and implementation.
  2. Practice:
    • Avoid unnecessary complexity; choose the simplest solution that solves the problem.
    • Break down problems into smaller, manageable components.
    • Favour straightforward and easy-to-understand solutions over complex ones.
  3. Benefits:
    • Readability: Simpler code is easier for others (or future we) to understand.
    • Maintainability: Simple code is typically easier to maintain and less error-prone.
    • Scalability: Simple designs are often more adaptable to changing requirements.

10. Efficient String Instantiation in Java:

When creating a new String object in Java, doing so directly rather than using a constructor is more efficient. Here's a comparison:

While both approaches are equivalent, the direct method (String str = "abc";) is considered better practice. It is faster, requires less code, and is generally more efficient regarding memory and processor usage.

11. Avoid Redundant Initializations

Avoid redundant initializations in Java to improve code clarity and efficiency. Redundant initializations occur when we explicitly assign default values to variables already initialized with default values by Java.

For Example:

In Java, primitive data types are automatically initialized to default values (0 for numeric types, false for boolean, and null for reference types). Explicitly initializing them with the same default values is unnecessary.

Instead, simply declare the variables:

By avoiding redundant initializations, we make our code more concise, reduce unnecessary assignments, and adhere to the principle of keeping code clean and clear.

12. Use Underscores in Lengthy Numeric Literals

Use underscores in lengthy numeric literals to enhance readability. In Java, we can include underscores in numeric literals to separate groups of digits, making it easier for developers to quickly understand the magnitude of the number. It is particularly useful for large numbers like constants or numeric IDs.

Using underscores does not affect the value; it's purely for human readability. It helps prevent errors when counting digits and improves the code's visual appeal. The practice is especially beneficial in scenarios where numeric literals represent constants or other values that are meant to be human-readable.

13. Use Design Patterns

Design patterns are proven solutions to recurring problems in software development. They represent best practices derived from the collective experience of seasoned developers over time. The tutorial aims to guide experienced and inexperienced developers through the concepts of design patterns using Java, offering step-by-step explanations and examples.


  • The tutorial is designed for experienced developers seeking effective solutions to common problems and inexperienced developers looking to learn software design in a straightforward manner.


  • Assumes basic familiarity with Java programming concepts. If one is unfamiliar with these concepts, going through a basic Java programming tutorial first is recommended.

14. Avoid Hardcoding Values in the Code

If a programmer is hardcoding the values, he might be guilty of hardcoding literal values instead of using variables. For example, hardcoding the current year in a program can lead to issues like static results and decreased code readability.

Reasons Why Hardcoding is Considered Bad Practice:

  1. Readability Concerns:
    • Hardcoding makes code harder to read and understand. Using variables provides clarity and context.
  2. Reduced Reusability:
    • Hardcoded values make code less reusable. Manual changes are required if the same code needs to be used with different values.
  3. Error-Prone:
    • Hardcoding can lead to errors if values change. For instance, if the current year is hardcoded, the program might produce incorrect results in subsequent years.

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA