Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Java Object Model

Java is a versatile and widely used programming language, and much of its success is due to its strong object-oriented (OOP) architecture. At the core of a Java OOP application is its object model, a key concept that defines how data is organized, organized, and manipulated in the language.

In this section, we will go through the overview of the Java object model, and the basic elements, principles, and roles they play in the composition of Java applications We will do the research.

Object Model

The Java Object Model is a conceptual model that describes how objects are represented in Java. It is based on the object-oriented principles that includes class, object, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. It is a powerful tool that helps us to write better code. It is important to understand the basics of the model in order to use it effectively.

Advantages of the Object Model

  • Object model enforces DRY (Don't repeat yourself) way of writing code.
  • It enables quick and easy software development and maintenance.
  • It reduces development risk while deal with complex system.

Object-Oriented Programming

Before delving into the Java object model, it is important to understand the basic principles of object-oriented programming. OOP is a programming paradigm that deals with the concept of an "object". These features cover data and services, and encourage modularity, reusability, and extensibility in software design. The four basic principles of OOP are encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism, and abstraction. Let's discuss each in detail.

1. Object

In Java, everything is treated as an object. Whether it is a simple data type or a complex structure, everything is derived from the parent class java.lang.Object. This universality simplifies the structure of the language and encourages consistent structure. Java contains object states, actions, and identifiers, with data and methods that operate on that data.

2. Class

At the core of the Java object model is the concept of a class. A class is a blueprint or template. It defines the attributes (fields) and actions (methods) that its objects will have. Objects are created using the new keyword, instances of the class, each instance has its own attributes, and creates multiple objects with the same attributes.


Engine started for Toyota Camry
Engine started for Ford Mustang

In this example, the Car class defines a blueprint for the car object, and two instances (myCar and anotherCar) are created based on this blueprint.

3. Inheritance

Property is an important part of the Java object model that allows a class to inherit the properties and behavior of another class. This encourages reuse of rules and horizontal processing between classes. The subclass (child) inherits from the superclass (parent) and gets its fields and methods.


Vehicle is moving
Engine started

In this example, the ElectricCar class inherits from the Car class, gaining access to its fields and methods. Additionally, it introduces new fields and methods specific to electric cars.

4. Polymorphism

Polymorphism causes objects to behave as instances of a parent class, allowing modifications and extensions to the code. There are two types of polymorphism in Java: compile-time polymorphism (the method overriding) and runtime polymorphism (the method overriding).

Method Overloading

In a redundant approach, multiple methods with the same name but different parameter lists are defined in the same class. The compiler determines which method to call based on the method signature.

Method Overriding

Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides a specific implementation for a method that is already defined in its superclass. It allows objects of the subclass to be treated as objects of the superclass.


Generic animal sound
Bark! Bark!

In this example, the Dog class overrides the makeSound method from its superclass Animal.

5. Abstraction

Abstraction is the process of hiding the complex implementation details and exposing only the essential features of an object. In Java, abstraction is achieved through abstract classes and interfaces. An abstract class can have abstract (unimplemented) methods, and concrete (implemented) methods, while an interface contains only abstract methods.


This is a shape
Area: 78.53981633974483

In this example, the Shape class is abstract, defining an abstract method calculateArea(). The Circle class extends Shape and provides a concrete implementation of calculateArea().

6. Encapsulation and Data Hiding

Encapsulation involves bundling data (fields) and methods that operate on the data into a single unit, known as a class. It helps in restricting access to certain components of an object, enhancing security and preventing unintended interference. In Java, encapsulation is achieved through access modifiers (public, private, protected, default).


Name: John Doe
Updated Age: John Doe

In this example, the Person class encapsulates the name and age fields, providing public methods (getName() and setAge()) for controlled access.

7. The Object Class

All classes in Java inherit from the Object class, which is the root of the class hierarchy. The Object class provides basic functionality that is common to all objects, including methods like toString(), equals(), and hashCode(). Developers can override these methods in their classes to provide custom implementations.


Student{name='Alice', studentId=12345}

In this example, the toString() method is overridden in the Student class to provide a custom string representation when the object is printed.

8. Garbage Collection

Java employs automatic garbage collection to manage memory. Objects that are no longer referenced are eligible for garbage collection, and the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) takes care of reclaiming their memory. The finalize method in the Object class can be overridden to perform cleanup operations before an object is garbage-collected, although its usage is discouraged in favour of other memory management techniques.


Resource acquired
Resource released

The Java object model is the basis for creating application-oriented objects in Java. It includes classes, instances, inheritance, polymorphism, abstraction, closure, and the universal Object class.

Understanding the complexity of the Java object model is essential to building robust, modular, and maintainable software applications. As developers continue to explore the capabilities and benefits of the Java object-oriented paradigm, they open up new possibilities for scalable extensibility systems

Embracing OOP principles and mastering the nuances of the Java object model enables developers to create elegant and efficient solutions that meet today's software development requirements as Java evolves and new features are introduced is, the object model is still timeless and central to language, and determines the way it is used

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA