Minimum XOR Value Pair in JavaGiven an array containing nonnegative numbers, our task is to find out a value that represents the minimum XOR value of two numbers from the given array. Consider the following examples. Example 1: Input: int a[] = {10, 8, 5, 3, 1}; Output: 2 Explanation: In the given array, we can make 10 pairs (10, 8) = 10 ^ 8 = 2 (10, 5) = 10 ^ 5 = 15 (10, 3) = 10 ^ 3 = 9 (10, 1) = 10 ^ 1 = 11 (8, 5) = 8 ^ 5 = 13 (8, 3) = 8 ^ 3 = 11 (8, 1) = 8 ^ 1 = 9 (5, 3) = 5 ^ 3 = 6 (5, 1) = 5 ^ 1 = 4 (3, 1) = 3 ^ 1 = 2 We see that the minimum XOR value of all the above pairs is 2. Example 2: Input: int a[] = {3, 5, 7, 2}; Output: 1 Explanation: In the given array, we can make 6 pairs. (3, 5) = 3 ^ 5 = 6 (3, 7) = 3 ^ 7 = 4 (3, 2) = 3 ^ 2 = 1 (5, 7) = 5 ^ 7 = 2 (5, 2) = 5 ^ 2 = 7 (7, 2) = 7 ^ 2 = 5 We see that the minimum XOR value of all the above pairs is 1. Naive ApproachThe approach is straightforward, find out every pair of the elements present in the given array. Compute the XOR for every pair and find out the minimum XOR value. Let's see it happening in the following program. FileName: MinXORVal.java Output: For the array: 10 8 5 3 1 The minimum XOR value is: 2 For the array: 3 5 7 2 The minimum XOR value is: 1 Time Complexity: In the above program, we have used twodegree nesting of the forloops in the method findMinXorVal(). Since for each iteration of the outer loop, the inner loop has a time complexity of O(n). Therefore, the overall time complexity of the program is O(n2), where n is the total number of elements present in the input array. Using SortingIn this approach, we will sort the input array and will find the minimum XOR value using a single loop. The sorting approach works because the XOR of two numbers that are nearer to each other has a lower XOR value as compared to the numbers that are distant. For example: 1 ^ 8 = 9 & 4 ^ 5 = 1. It is because the gap between 4 & 5 is 1 and 1 & 8 is 7. Therefore, when we do sorting, the numbers that are nearer to one another come one after the other, and then all we have to do is to run a single loop and find XOR of consecutive elements. Observe the following program. FileName: MinXORVal1.java Output: For the array: 10 8 5 3 1 The minimum XOR value is: 2 For the array: 3 5 7 2 The minimum XOR value is: 1 Time Complexity: In the above program, we have used sorting and a single forloop. Sorting takes O(nlog(n)) time, and the loop takes O(n) time. Therefore, the overall time complexity of the above program is O(n + nlog(n)), where n is the total number of elements present in the input array. Note that this approach is better than the previous one. Using TRIEUsing TRIE, we will get the most optimized solution as we can solve the problem in even lesser time than O(nlog(n)). Let's see the algorithm of it. Step 1: Make an empty TRIE such that each node of the TRIE has two children, one for the 0 and the other for the 1 bit. Step 2: Do the Initialization of minXorVal as INT_MAX, and insert a[0] into TRIE. Step 3: Traverse all the elements of the array one by one, beginning from the second element, and do the following:
Step 4: return the minXorVal FileName: MinXORVal2.java Output: For the array: 10 8 5 3 1 The minimum XOR value is: 2 For the array: 3 5 7 2 The minimum XOR value is: 1 Time Complexity: The time complexity of the above program is O(n), where n is the total number of elements present in the array.
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