Order of Execution of Constructors in Java Inheritance
Constructors in Java
A constructor in Java is similar to a method with a few differences. Constructor has the same name as the class name. A constructor doesn't have a return type.
A Java program will automatically create a constructor if it is not already defined in the program. It is executed when an instance of the class is created.
A constructor cannot be static, abstract, final or synchronized. It cannot be overridden.
Java has two types of constructors:
What is the order of execution of constructor in Java inheritance?
While implementing inheritance in a Java program, every class has its own constructor. Therefore the execution of the constructors starts after the object initialization. It follows a certain sequence according to the class hierarchy. There can be different orders of execution depending on the type of inheritance.
Different ways of the order of constructor execution in Java
1. Order of execution of constructor in Single inheritance
In single level inheritance, the constructor of the base class is executed first.
Order of constructor execution... ParentClass constructor executed. ChildClass constructor executed.
In the above code, after creating an instance of ChildClass the ParentClass constructor is invoked first and then the ChildClass.
2. Order of execution of constructor in Multilevel inheritance
In multilevel inheritance, all the upper class constructors are executed when an instance of bottom most child class is created.
Order of constructor execution in Multilevel inheritance... College constructor executed Department constructor executed Student constructor executed
In the above code, an instance of Student class is created and it invokes the constructors of College, Department and Student accordingly.
3. Calling same class constructor using this keyword
Here, inheritance is not implemented. But there can be multiple constructors of a single class and those constructors can be accessed using this keyword.
Order of constructor execution... Parameterized constructor executed. Default constructor executed.
In the above code, the parameterized constructor is called first even when the default constructor is called while object creation. It happens because this keyword is used as the first line of the default constructor.
4. Calling superclass constructor using super keyword
A child class constructor or method can access the base class constructor or method using the super keyword.
Order of constructor execution... Value of a : 79 Value of b : 89
In the above code, the ChildClass calls the ParentClass constructor using a super keyword that determines the order of execution of constructors.
In this article, we have discussed the constructors and their order of execution in Java programming.