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Understanding Static Synchronization in Java

In the world of multi-threaded programming, synchronization is an important concept to ensure that concurrent threads can access shared resources safely. There are different ways to achieve synchronization in Java, one of them is static synchronization. In this section, we will explore what static synchronization is, why it is important, and how to use it effectively in Java.

Static Synchronization

Static synchronization, commonly referred to as "class level synchronization", is a mechanism that enables access to static methods or static variables in a class to create a lock at the class level using the synchronized keyword of a static method or static block , not the number of threads executing the synchronized block at the same time.

Benefits of Static Synchronization

Thread Safety: Static synchronization ensures thread safety for shared resources accessed within a class. It prevents multiple threads from accessing the synchronized code simultaneously, which can lead to data corruption and unpredictable behavior.

Class-Level Lock: Static synchronization creates a lock at the class level, which means that all instances of the class share the same lock. This can be useful for scenarios where we want to coordinate access to resources that are shared among all instances of the class.

Simple Implementation: Using static synchronization is a straightforward way to achieve thread safety. It requires minimal changes to the code, typically involving the addition of the synchronized keyword to the relevant methods or blocks.

The Need for Synchronization

In Java, when multiple threads execute simultaneously, delayed objects such as variables or methods can be accessed. If not configured properly, this can lead to tribal situations, data corruption, and unpredictable behavior. To avoid these problems, synchronization is used to synchronize the execution of threads and ensure that they do not interfere with each other when accessing delayed resources.

Here is, a simple example to illustrate static synchronization:

In the above example, the getInstance() method is synchronized using the synchronized keyword. This ensures that only one thread can create an instance of MySingleton at a time. Other threads that attempt to access this method will be blocked until the lock is released.

Here is a simple Java program that demonstrates static synchronization. In this example, we will use a shared counter variable and multiple threads to increment it while ensuring thread safety using static synchronization.

Here's the Java code:

File Name:


public class StaticSynchronizationExample {
    private static int counter = 0;
     public static synchronized void incrementCounter() {
public static void main(String[] args) {
        Thread thread1 = new Thread(() -> {
            for (int i = 0; i < 10000; i++) {
   Thread thread2 = new Thread(() -> {
            for (int i = 0; i < 10000; i++) {
        try {
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        System.out.println("Final Counter Value: " + counter);

In this code, we have a shared counter variable, and two threads (thread1 and thread2) increment it 10,000 times each using the incrementCounter method, which is synchronized using the synchronized keyword.

The final counter value is 20,000, which confirms that the static synchronization successfully prevented race conditions, and the two threads safely incremented the counter without data corruption.

Challenges and Considerations

While static synchronization is a valuable tool for ensuring thread safety, it's essential to be aware of its limitations and potential pitfalls:

Performance Overhead: Synchronized methods or blocks can introduce performance overhead, as they may block threads waiting for the lock. Overuse of synchronization can lead to reduced concurrency and slower execution.

Deadlocks: Care should be taken to avoid deadlocks, where two or more threads are waiting for each other to release a lock. This can lead to a program's complete halt. Deadlocks are less common in static synchronization but can still occur in complex scenarios.

Granularity: Consider the granularity of synchronization. Locking at the class level may not be appropriate for all situations. Fine-grained synchronization, such as using different locks for different resources, may be a better choice in some cases.

Alternatives: Depending on our specific requirements, we may want to explore alternatives to static synchronization, such as using the java.util.concurrent package, which provides more advanced synchronization constructs like ReentrantLock and Semaphore.


Static synchronization in Java is a valuable tool for ensuring thread safety and coordinating access to shared resources within a class. By creating a class-level lock, it prevents multiple threads from interfering with each other when accessing static methods or variables. While it simplifies the process of synchronization, it should be used judiciously to avoid performance bottlenecks and potential deadlocks. Understanding when and how to use static synchronization is essential for effective multi-threaded programming in Java.

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