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Chomsky Hierarchy

Chomsky Hierarchy represents the class of languages that are accepted by the different machine. The category of language in Chomsky's Hierarchy is as given below:

  1. Type 0 known as Unrestricted Grammar.
  2. Type 1 known as Context Sensitive Grammar.
  3. Type 2 known as Context Free Grammar.
  4. Type 3 Regular Grammar.
Chomsky Hierarchy

This is a hierarchy. Therefore every language of type 3 is also of type 2, 1 and 0. Similarly, every language of type 2 is also of type 1 and type 0, etc.

Type 0 Grammar:

Type 0 grammar is known as Unrestricted grammar. There is no restriction on the grammar rules of these types of languages. These languages can be efficiently modeled by Turing machines.

For example:

Type 1 Grammar:

Type 1 grammar is known as Context Sensitive Grammar. The context sensitive grammar is used to represent context sensitive language. The context sensitive grammar follows the following rules:

  • The context sensitive grammar may have more than one symbol on the left hand side of their production rules.
  • The number of symbols on the left-hand side must not exceed the number of symbols on the right-hand side.
  • The rule of the form A → ε is not allowed unless A is a start symbol. It does not occur on the right-hand side of any rule.
  • The Type 1 grammar should be Type 0. In type 1, Production is in the form of V → T

Where the count of symbol in V is less than or equal to T.

For example:

Type 2 Grammar:

Type 2 Grammar is known as Context Free Grammar. Context free languages are the languages which can be represented by the context free grammar (CFG). Type 2 should be type 1. The production rule is of the form

Where A is any single non-terminal and is any combination of terminals and non-terminals.

For example:

Type 3 Grammar:

Type 3 Grammar is known as Regular Grammar. Regular languages are those languages which can be described using regular expressions. These languages can be modeled by NFA or DFA.

Type 3 is most restricted form of grammar. The Type 3 grammar should be Type 2 and Type 1. Type 3 should be in the form of

For example:


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