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Difference Between Static and Dynamic in Java

Java, a programming language renowned for its portability and flexibility, incorporates two fundamental concepts that often perplex developers static and dynamic. These terms transcend mere syntax distinctions; they delineate the fundamental characteristics of variables, methods, and classes within a Java program. In this section, we will discuss the difference between static and dynamic in Java.

Static in Java

Static Variables

In Java, the static keyword herald's variables that exist at the class level, transcending the boundaries of instances. When a variable is declared as static, it is shared among all objects instantiated from that class. Initialization of static variables occurs only once when the class is loaded into memory. Consider the following illustration.



Here, the static variable totalItems is incremented each time a ShoppingCart object is instantiated, and its value is shared across all instances.

Static Methods

Static methods, like their variable counterparts, belong to the class rather than instances. They are invoked using the class name, without the need for object instantiation.



The add() method is accessible directly through the class, emphasizing the class-level nature of static methods.

Static Blocks

Static blocks provide a mechanism for executing code that needs to run only once during class loading. These blocks are particularly useful for initializing static variables or performing tasks that require a one-time setup.

The static block ensures that the designated tasks are executed when the class is loaded, reinforcing the concept of one-time initialization.

Dynamic in Java

Dynamic Variables

Dynamic variables, in contrast to their static counterparts, are tied to instances of a class. Each object possesses its own copy of dynamic variables, encapsulating state at the object level.



In this scenario, each BankAccount object has its own accountBalance, allowing for independent state management.

Dynamic Methods

Dynamic methods, also known as instance methods, operate on instance variables and contribute to the modularity and encapsulation of Java programs.



Here, the calculateArea() method operates on the instance variable radius, demonstrating the dynamics of instance methods.

Understanding the dichotomy between static and dynamic in Java is pivotal for crafting efficient, organized, and maintainable code. The choice between static and dynamic elements depends on the nature of the functionality one aims to achieve.

Aspect Static Dynamic
Association Associated with the class itself. Static members are class-level entities, shared among all instances. Class-level association allows for consistency across all objects. Associated with instances (objects) of the class. Dynamic members belong to each object individually, encapsulating instance-specific characteristics. Each object has its own set of dynamic members.
Declaration Declared using the static keyword. The static keyword precedes the declaration of static variables and methods, making it explicit that they belong to the class. No special keyword is used for dynamic variables/methods. Dynamic members are implicitly associated with instances; therefore, no special keyword is needed for their declaration.
Memory Allocation Memory allocated once during class loading. Static members share a common memory space allocated during the class loading phase. This shared memory space is accessible to all instances. Memory allocated separately for each instance. Dynamic members have dedicated memory allocated for each instance. This individual memory allocation ensures object-specific data isolation.
Initialization Initialized once when the class is loaded. Static variables are initialized during the class loading process. Static blocks, if present, are executed once during this initialization, providing a space for one-time setup. Initialized when an object is created. Dynamic variables are initialized when an object is instantiated using the new keyword. Constructors are responsible for initializing dynamic members during object creation.
Access Accessed using the class name. Static members are accessed directly through the class name, making them independent of object instances. Accessed using object references. Dynamic members are accessed using references to specific objects. This necessitates the creation of an object to access and modify dynamic members.
Modifiability Shared among all instances. Changes to a static member reflect in all instances of the class. Static members contribute to a shared state across the class. Instance-specific, each object has its own copy. Dynamic members are specific to each object, allowing for individual state management. Changes to dynamic members affect only the instance they belong to.
Usage Used for utility methods, constants, and shared resources. Static members are ideal for functionalities that are common to all instances, such as utility methods, constants, and shared resources. Used for object-specific behaviors, encapsulating instance state. Dynamic members are employed for behaviors that are specific to individual objects, encapsulating state within instances. Instance methods operate on dynamic variables.

When to use Static in Java?

  • Shared Resources: Use static when a variable or method should be shared among all instances of a class.
  • One-Time Setup: Leverage static blocks for tasks that require one-time initialization during class loading.
  • Utility Methods: Employ static methods for utility functions that don't rely on instance-specific state.

When to use Dynamic in Java?

  • Instance-Specific State: Choose dynamic for variables and methods that are specific to individual instances.
  • Object-Oriented Paradigm: Embrace dynamic methods for behaviors that are intrinsic to the object's state and functionality.
  • Encapsulation: Utilize dynamic elements for encapsulating state within objects.

Using Static and Dynamic in Java Program


Enter a value:
Static block executed.
Static variable after modification: 5

In this static example, a user is prompted to enter a value, and the static variable is incremented based on the input. The static block is executed only once during the class loading process.


Enter an initial value for dynamic variable:
Enter an increment value:
Dynamic variable: 13

In this dynamic example, the user is prompted to enter an initial value for the dynamic variable and an increment value. The dynamic variable is then modified based on the user inputs, and its value is displayed using dynamic methods. Each instance of DynamicExample has its own copy of the dynamic variable.

In the realm of Java programming, static and dynamic are not opposing forces but harmonious elements contributing to the symphony of software development. Understanding when to employ each concept is akin to conducting a symphony, orchestrating the elements in a way that produces a cohesive and efficient result.

By navigating the nuances of static and dynamic in Java, developers can compose code that is not only functional but also elegant, laying the foundation for scalable and maintainable applications. The dance between static and dynamic is a ballet of balance, and mastering it unlocks the true potential of Java development.

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