In this section, we are going to learn about all the previous and latest versions of PostgreSQL.
Versioning is a procedure of classifying either single version names or numbers to the particular set of software as it is released and established. When the new version receives the bug fixes, security fixes, and announced with the higher version number than before, this specifies enhancements known as Minor Release.
The Global development group has released several versions of PostgreSQL. The latest version of PostgreSQL version is 12.3. This version includes more advanced features as compared to other older versions. The new features can be added, removed and also contains much essential modifications, fixed bugs and security issues, and so on.
This version includes the release history from PostgreSQL 11.8 to PostgreSQL 10.13, and it is available from October 3, 2019, and ends the support on November 14, 2024.
After its first release, the group maintains a significant version for five years, but after the 5th birthday, a major version will have one last minor release which has all the fixes, and that will be considered as EOL[end-of-life], which is not used or supported anymore.
The essential versions modify the inside layout of data files and system tables. The PostgreSQL Global Development Group has announced the update versions which support our database system, with 12.3, 11.8, 10.13, 9.6.18, and 9.5.22 on May 14, 2020.
All the versions of PostgreSQL are as follows:
Release Date: May 1, 1995
Versions: 0.01, 0.02, 0.03
Brief description: It was the Initial release of PostgreSQL.
Release Date: May 25, 1995
It was released after the first initial version, and it contains some incompatible changes like:
- The SQL statement used to create a database as CREATE DATABASE rather than CREATEDB and to drop a database as DROP DATABASE rather than DESTROYDB.
- The two new added tools are pgperl, pg_dump, along with having some bug fixes of the previous version.
Release Date: July 21, 1995
In this version, they do the modifications with databases created with the previous versions.
- The Change ACLsyntax is replaced by Grant or Revoke
- Then in 0.03 version, the double-quote (")is deprecated as a quoting character for string literals, and we need to change them to single quotes (') along with the bug fixes of the previous version.
Release: PostgreSQL 1.0
Release Date: September 5, 1995
Versions: 1.0, 1.01, 1.02… 1.09
There are some improvements which have been done in the version, such as:
- Copy command now takes an optional USING DELIMITER specification.
- Delimiters can be any single-character string.
- SQL LIKE syntax has been added.
- IRIX 5.3 port has been added.
- And some Inconsistencies are as follows:
- Date formats have to be MM-DD-YYYY and delimiters is now a keyword.
- The bug fixes have been done, which were identified in the previous versions.
Release Date: February 23, 1996
Version: PostgreSQL 1.01
Brief description: The further development done in these versions are:
- A readable reference manual that describes the query language.
- Add CAST AS …syntax
- pg_dump uses COPY instead of the SELECT loop for better performance
- Add 'Internal' as a possible language for CREATE FUNCTION.
- Add ASC and DESC keywords and so on along with the bug fixes.
Release Date: August 1, 1996
Version: PostgreSQL 1.02
Brief description: The enhancement done in this version is as follows:
- Improvement in date and time functions.
- The psql is used in place of monitor in administration shell scripts, formatting output, including HTML.
- Improvement in NULL, insert, update, and comparison fixed commands.
- pg_dump outputs the schema and the data, with many fixes and so on along with bug fixes.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.0
Release Date: January 29, 1997
Brief description: The enhancement done in this version is as follows:
- Add UNIQUE index capability.
- libpq++ improvements.
- Agreed COPY from the frontend.
- Add hostname or user-level access control relatively than just hostname and user.
- The BETWEEN qualifier is implemented.
- The IN qualifier is implemented.
- psql return code is now more precise.
- psql updated help syntax and so on along with the bug fixes of previous versions.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.1
Release Date: July 22, 1997
Versions: 6.1.0, 6.1.1
Brief description: Here, we are discussing the major version (6.1.0) of release 6.0. The 6.0 is the minor defect- fix release and some modifications done in this version which are as follows:
- The pg_dumpall or pg_dump offers to reserve ownership of all tables and objects.
- The new psql connect option provides modification in usernames without modifying the databases.
- The timestamp fixed to use the standard functions.
- They allow underscores in usernames.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.2
Release Date: October 17, 1997
Versions: 6.2.0, 6.2.1
Brief description: PostgreSQL 6.2 is the usability release. This release has two versions, and we are going to discuss the enhancement done in significant version (6.2.0):
- Strings to span lines, like ANSI, are allowed.
- In this, we can handle the DEFAULT with INSERT of NULL properly.
- In this, we can perform a more extensive range of true and false as Boolean values.
- The Trigger function is used to insert user names for INSERT and UPDATE.
- Maintain the output of now and current.
- And also allow TIME and TYPE column names.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.3
Release Date: March 1, 1998
Versions: 6.3.0, 6.3.1, 6.3.2
Brief description: In the major version (6.3.0), we are going to discuss the enhancement and newly added features:
- This version will provide the support for client-side environment variables to specify time zone and date style.
- The default table privileges have changed with better password authorization tools.
- Many new SQL features, include full SQL92 subselect with EXISTS, IN, ALL, ANY key words ability.
- Add hash functions for date, time and timespan.
- Rename system indexes.
- Implement SQL92 PRIMARY KEY and UNIQUE clauses using indexes.
- In this, the real deadlock detection for no more timeouts.
- Rename pg_dump -H option to -h.
- In this version, they increase 16 char limits on system table or index names to 32 characters.
- They add GERMAN option to SET DATE STYLE and so on along with the bug fixes.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.4
Release Date: October 30, 1998
Versions: 6.4.0, 6.4.1, 6.4.2
Brief description: In the major version (6.4.0), the developers will add the new features and do some enhancements along with bug fixes of previous versions:
- They added many SQL92-compatible syntax features with INSERT DEFAULT VALUES.
- Client and server communications have been cleaned up.
- The automatic configuration and installation system have received some attention and should be more robust for more platforms than it has ever been.
- Views and rules are now functional.
- psql now cancels query with Control-C.
- In this, we can display the index used in an EXPLAIN.
- Some New configure has been done with -mb option.
- Select version () returns the PostgreSQL version.
- JDBC also cleaned.
- They have been added the PQsetdbLogin() in libpq.
- In this, they will allow GROUP BY on functions and index can be used with clauses, etc.
Release: PostgreSQL 6.5
Release Date: June 9, 1999
Versions: 6.5.0, 6.5.1, 6.5.2, 6.5.3
Brief description: In the major version (6.5.0) of release 6.5, the newly added features and improvement are as follows:
- In this version, we have an exact numeric data type, with user-specified precision.
- The newly added SQL features are CASE, INTERSECT, and EXCEPT statement support.
- Most of the interfaces have a new version; that's why the current functionality has been enhanced.
- They increase their port list, including NetBSD/arm32 and Windows NT/ix86.
- They speed up the table joins, memory allocation, optimization, and row transfer routines in PostgreSQL.
- They Implement the CASE, COALESCE, NULLIF expression.
- Update the ODBC driver.
- They permit multiple rule actions.
- In this, the optimization statistics has been improved for system table access.
Release: PostgreSQL 7.0
Release Date: May 8, 2000
Versions: 7.0.0, 7.0.1, 7.0.2, 7.0.3
Brief description: The 7.0 release has many versions, but here, we are discussing the major version (7.0.0) functionality, the newly added features, and improvement:
- The developers updated the psql.
- In this, the SQL92 Join syntax can be used.
- The ODBC and JDBC interfaces have been advanced and extended.
- They deprecate ':' and ';' operators.
- For fast truncate relations, they have added the TRUNCATE command.
- CREATE FUNCTION, WITH clause is allowed, which can be used for all language types.
- They introduced a new SET FSYNC command.
- pg_descriptions is allowed while creating types, functions, and columns.
Release: PostgreSQL 7.1
Release Date: April 13, 2001
Versions: 7.1.0, 7.1.1, 7.1.2, 7.1.3
Brief description: In this version (7.1.0), the developer primarily emphasis on eliminating restrictions that have occurred in the PostgreSQL program. The primary modification and enhancements are as follows:
- In this, they allowed using the SQL92 outer join syntax.
- Now the Subqueries in From can be used.
- They enhanced the cluster, CREATE FUNCTION failure message, handling of file descriptor cache, dependency ordering of pg_dump, etc.
- The functional indexes can be used as the binary-compatible type.
- They have introduced new pg_config utility, and also provides efficiency to change MySQL schema dumps to SQL92 and PostgreSQL.
Release: PostgreSQL 7.2
Release Date: February 4, 2002
Versions: 7.2.0, 7.2.1, 7.2.2, 7.2.3, 7.2.4, 7.2.5, 7.2.6, 7.2.7, 7.2.8
Brief description: The PostgreSQL 7.2 release containing various versions that will be enhanced to be used in high-volume software, and the primary modification is as follows:
- For security purposes, they introduced a new MD5 encryption option, which allows more secure storage and transfer of passwords.
- The Program and library messages can now be showed in various languages.
- They offered the safe transaction ID wraparound.
- After some system tables, they added unique indexes.
- In this, we can measure transaction times in milliseconds.
- We can create temporary files in a discrete directory.
Release: PostgreSQL 7.3
Release Date: November 27, 2002
Versions: 7.3.0, 7.3.1, 7.3.2, 7.3.3, 7.3.4,7.3.5, 7.3.6,7.3.7, 7.3.8, 7.3.9,7.3.10, 7.3.11, 7.3.12, 7.3.13, 7.3.14, 7.3.15, 7.3.16, 7.3.17, 7.3.18, 7.3.19, 7.3.20, 7.3.21
Brief description: The major version (7.3.0) of the release 7.3, the primary modifications are as below:
- From this release, the PostgreSQL maintains the ALTER TABLE ... DROP COLUMN functionality.
- To enhance the performance of PostgreSQL, we can set the queries.
- They enhanced a variety of logging options.
- From these particular releases, they allowed both multibyte and locale support.
- In this version, the PostgreSQL can record object dependencies that offered developments in many areas.
- They enhance the hash function.
- Development in SSL.
- For specifying the Analyze buckets, they add the default_statistics_target variable.
- They Increase identifier length to 63.
- In this release, the Date, time, and time zone have been enhanced.
Release: PostgreSQL 7.4
Release Date: November 17, 2003
Versions: 7.4.0, 7.4.1, 7.4.2 , 7.4.3, 7.4.5, 7.4.6, 7.4.7, 7.4.8, 7.4.9, 7.4.10, 7.4.11, 7.4.12, 7.4.13, 7.4.14, 7.4.15, 7.4.16, 7.4.17, 7.4.18, 7.4.19, 7.4.20, 7.4.21, 7.4.22, 7.4.23, 7.4.24, 7.4.25, 7.4.26, 7.4.27, 7.4.28, 7.4.29, 7.4.30
Brief description: In the major version (7.4.0) of PostgreSQL 7.4 release, the significant modification has been done, which are as follows:
- They have done the enhancement in GROUP BY processing with the help of hash buckets.
- We can use the queries with explicit JOIN syntax for enhanced development from this release.
- For simple SQL tasks, we can use function-in lining.
- In this, the IN and NOT IN subqueries are more operative.
- They introduced new multikey hash join functionality.
- The regular expression code is more powerful and quicker.
- The major development in SSL consistency and performance.
- They develop the free space map powerfully and reprocess the empty index pages.
- In this, they announced the new client-to-server protocol and the latest version of full-text indexing.
- They enhance in Array handling, which can be moved into the server core.
- A new auto vacuum tool has been announced.
- From this release, the libpq and ECPG software are entirely thread-safe.
Release: PostgreSQL 8.0
Release Date: January 19, 2005
Versions: 8.0.0, 8.0.1, 8.0.2, 8.0.3, 8.0.4, 8.0.5, 8.0.6, 8.0.7, 8.0.8, 8.0.9, 8.0.10, 8.0.11, 8.0.12, 8.0.13, 8.0.14, 8.0.15, 8.0.16, 8.0.17, 8.0.18, 8.0.19, 8.0.20, 8.0.21, 8.0.22, 8.0.23, 8.0.24, 8.0.25,8.0.26
Brief description: The major version for release 8.0 is 8.0.0. The 8.0 release is the first release that can be executed on Microsoft Windows as a server. It can run as a Windows service. It will also maintain NT-based Windows releases like Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP, and Windows 2003.
Let's see what modification is done under this version:
- We can change the column's data type with the Alter table.
- From this version, the COPY can read and write the CSV (comma-separated-value) files.
- In this, they enhance the Checkpoint, Buffer Management, and Vacuum.
- The cross-data-type index usage is now supported.
- In this version, they add nested transactions (savepoints)
- To create triggers, indexes, and sequences, the CREATE SCHEMA is allowed.
Release: PostgreSQL 8.1
Release Date: November 8, 2005
Versions: 8.1.0, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, 8.1.5, 8.1.6, 8.1.7, 8.1.8, 8.1.9, 8.1.10, 8.1.11, 8.1.12, 8.1.13, 8.1.14, 8.1.15, 8.1.16, 8.1.17, 8.1.18, 8.1.19, 8.1.20, 8.1.21, 8.1.22, 8.1.23
Brief description: The 8.1.0 is the first version of the PostgreSQL 8.1 release. In this version, they made some modifications and added new features which are as follows:
- In this, they added two-phase commit, which means that transactions can be prepared on many computer systems. Once all computers have expertly developed their transactions (no one failed), all transactions can be committed.
- For the shared buffer cache, they enhanced concurrent access.
- From now on, we can automatically use indexes for MAX() and MIN() functions.
- For specific roles, they added dependencies on shared objects.
- For partitioned tables, the performance will be enhanced.
- To use an intermediate in-memory bitmap, they allowed index scans.
Release: PostgreSQL 8.2
Release Date: December 5, 2006
Versions: 8.2.0, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.2.3, 8.2.4, 8.2.5, 8.2.6, 8.2.7, 8.2.8, 8.2.9, 8.2.10, 8.2.11, 8.2.12, 8.2.13, 8.2.14, 8.2.15, 8.2.16, 8.2.17, 8.2.18, 8.2.19, 8.2.20, 8.2.21, 8.2.22, 8.2.23
Brief description: In this release, we have several performance enhancements and improve much functionality, which was requested by users. The first version of this release was 8.2.0, and all other versions were released when the initial versions had some issues.
Here, we will see the improvements, newly added features, and bug fixes from the previous releases:
- From now on, we can create an Index without blocking the concurrent operations like INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
- In this, we have more effective vacuuming.
- The query language improvements include the INSERT, Multirow VALUES lists, UPDATE, DELETE RETURNING, and optional target-table alias in UPDATE and DELETE.
- We upgraded the sorting performance with lower memory usage.
- The enhancement in Array as well as nulls in arrays.
- In this, we can define the table inheritance relationships for and detached from pre-existing tables.
- Expand the sorting speed and decrease memory usage.
- For tables and indexes, the new FILLFACTOR is supported.
- In the configuration setting, they allowed units which have to be detailed.
Release: PostgreSQL 8.3
Release Date: February 4, 2008
Versions: 8.3.0, 8.3.1, 8.3.2, 8.3.3, 8.3.4, 8.3.5, 8.3.6, 8.3.7, 8.3.8, 8.3.9, 8.3.10, 8.3.11, 8.3.12, 8.3.13, 8.3.14, 8.3.15, 8.3.16, 8.3.17, 8.3.18, 8.3.19, 8.3.20, 8.3.21, 8.3.22, 8.3.23
Brief description: This version (8.3.0) includes some features and performance enhancement, which are as follows:
- From this version, the User-defined types can have the type modifiers.
- The full-text search is incorporated into the core database system.
- The ENUM (Enumerated) data types are supported.
- In this, we have the updatable cursors.
- In this, they maintained the SQL/XML standard as well as new operators and an XML data type.
- In logging and statistics collection, we have frequent enhancement.
- For authentication on Windows, they allowed SSPI (Security Service Provider Interface).
- In this version, we can compile the PostgreSQL distribution with Microsoft Visual C++.
- When table definitions modified or statistics are simplified, we can repeatedly re-plan cached queries.
- The multiple concurrent auto vacuum processes and other auto vacuum developments are supported.
- From now on, the concurrent large sequential scans can share the disk reads.
Release: PostgreSQL 8.4
Release Date: July 1, 2009
Versions: 8.4.0, 8.4.1, 8.4.2, 8.4.3, 8.4.4, 8.4.5, 8.4.6, 8.4.7, 8.4.8, 8.4.9, 8.4.10, 8.4.11, 8.4.12, 8.4.13, 8.4.14, 8.4.15, 8.4.16, 8.4.17, 8.4.18, 8.4.19, 8.4.20, 8.4.21, 8.4.22
Brief description: The PostgreSQL had become feature-complete in many years of development. In this release, we can see the directed method for adding features like monitoring, space reuse, and authentication.
The primary areas of improvements are as follows:
- In this, we have the natural editing function in psql.
- The column permissions are allowed.
- In this, the common table expression and recursive queries are allowed.
- They do enhancement in hash indexes.
- In this, they provide the pre database locale settings.
- For user authentication, they support the SSL certificates.
- For EXISTS and NOT EXISTS queries, they enhanced the Join performance queries.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.0
Release Date: September 20, 2010
Versions: 9.0.0, 9.0.1, 9.0.2, 9.0.3, 9.0.4, 9.0.5, 9.0.6, 9.0.7, 9.0.8, 9.0.9, 9.0.10, 9.0.11, 9.0.12, 9.0.13, 9.0.14, 9.0.15, 9.0.16, 9.0.17, 9.0.18, 9.0.19, 9.0.20, 9.0.21, 9.0.22, 9.0.23
Brief description: The first version of 9.0 releases is 9.0.0, where the developers add some new features which are helpful to enhance the quality of the application:
- They add new trigger features, with SQL standard compliant per-column triggers and conditional trigger execution.
- This version is fully supported for 64-bit Windows.
- There is a new execution of VACUUM FULL.
- They added new and improved security features with RADIUS authentication and LDAP verification.
- They allowed Informal database object permissions management.
- Mostly they support improved stored procedures.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.1
Release Date: September 12, 2011
Versions: 9.1.0, 9.1.1, 9.1.2, 9.1.3, 9.1.4, 9.1.5, 9.1.6, 9.1.7, 9.1.8, 9.1.9, 9.1.10, 9.1.11, 9.1.12, 9.1.13, 9.1.14, 9.1.15, 9.1.16, 9.1.17, 9.1.18, 9.1.19, 9.1.20, 9.1.21, 9.1.22, 9.1.23,9.1.24
Brief description: In this release, they announced the Streaming replication feature and made other improvements which are as follows:
- In this version, the developers enable the data-modification commands like INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE in WITH clauses.
- Synchronous replication is allowed.
- A correct serializable isolation level is added.
- In this, the foreign tables are supported.
- They maintain the unlogged tables with the help of the UNLOGGED option in CREATE TABLE.
- SECURITY LABEL command is added.
- The PL or Python server-side language is updated.
- In this version, the per-column collation is supported.
- They introduced extensions that shorten the packaging of additions to PostgreSQL.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.2
Release Date: September 10, 2012
Versions: 9.2.0, 9.2.1, 9.2.2, 9.2.3, 9.2.4, 9.2.5, 9.2.6, 9.2.7, 9.2.8, 9.2.9, 9.2.10, 9.2.11, 9.2.12, 9.2.13, 9.2.14, 9.2.15, 9.2.16, 9.2.17, 9.2.18, 9.2.19, 9.2.20, 9.2.21, 9.2.22, 9.2.23,9.2.24
Brief description: The announcements of this release are focused on the performance enhancement along with the new SQL features and continue working in support of replication. Here we will see some of the essential improvements of this release:
- The Range data type is enabled.
- In this, they allowed queries to recover data only from indexes and escaping the heap access.
- JSON data type is added.
- To use nested loops through inner index scans are enhanced.
- To archive WAL file changes, they add a pg_receivexlog
- The developer will agree with the planner for creating the custom plans for precise parameter values even while using prepared declarations.
- In this version, the Space-Partitioned GiST(SP-GiST) index access method is added.
- For views, a security_barrier option is added.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.3
Release Date: September 9, 2013
Versions: : 9.3.0, 9.3.1, 9.3.2, 9.3.3, 9.3.4, 9.3.5, 9.3.6, 9.3.7, 9.3.8, 9.3.9, 9.3.10, 9.3.11, 9.3.12, 9.3.13, 9.3.14, 9.3.15, 9.3.16, 9.3.17, 9.3.18, 9.3.19, 9.3.20, 9.3.21, 9.3.22, 9.3.23,9.3.24, 9.3.25
Brief description: In 9.3 release of PostgreSQL, the global group pf developers will make many improvements, which are as follows:
- In the 9.3.0 version, the developers check non-key-field row updates from blocking the foreign key checks.
- For event triggers, the support has been added.
- They added several features for the JSON data type, like functions to extract elements from JSON values and operators.
- To allow access for other Postgres servers, they add the Postgres foreign data wrapper.
- The Materialized views are added.
- For FROM-clause sub queries and function calls, they implement the SQL-standard LATERAL option.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.4
Release Date: December 18, 2014
Versions: 9.4.0, 9.4.1, 9.4.2, 9.4.3, 9.4.4, 9.4.5, 9.4.6, 9.4.7, 9.4.8, 9.4.9, 9.4.10, 9.4.11, 9.4.12, 9.4.13, 9.4.14, 9.4.15, 9.4.16, 9.4.17, 9.4.18, 9.4.19, 9.4.20, 9.4.21, 9.4.22, 9.4.23,9.4.24, 9.4.25,9.4.26
Brief description: In PostgreSQL 9.4 release, we have the various versions which are related to each other. Here, we are going to discuss the major version (9.4.0) of this release and the significant improvements, which are as follows:
- For logical decoding of WAL data, they allowed database changes that have to be streamed out in a customizable format.
- For some ALTER TABLE commands, they decrease lock strength.
- The new SQL command added for ALTER SYSTEM to modify the conf configuration file accesses.
- They further added jsonb because it is a more capable and competent data type to store the JSON data.
- The materialized views are allowed.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.5
Release Date: January 7, 2016
Versions: 9.5.0, 9.5.1, 9.5.2, 9.5.3, 9.5.4, 9.5.5, 9.5.6, 9.5.7, 9.5.8, 9.5.9, 9.5.10, 9.5.11, 9.5.12, 9.5.13, 9.5.14, 9.5.15, 9.5.16, 9.5.17, 9.5.18, 9.5.19, 9.5.20, 9.5.21, 9.5.22,
Brief description: This is the next release of the 9.0 series, which contains different versions. The first version of 9.5 releases is 9.5.0, and the significant improvements in this version are as follows:
- In this version, the BRIN (Block Range Indexes) has been added.
- They add the GROUP BY inquiry features for Cube, Grouping Sets, and Rollup.
- They enabled the INSERTs, which will help us to create a constraint clash, and that would be turned into UPDATEs.
- For multi-CPU machines, the vital performance will be enhanced.
- They produce the machines, which is useful to track the development of replication.
- In this, the row-level security control is added.
- For sorting, they enhanced the significant performance.
Release: PostgreSQL 9.6
Release Date: September 29, 2016
Versions: 9.6.0, 9.6.1, 9.6.2, 9.6.3, 9.6.4, 9.6.5, 9.6.6, 9.6.7, 9.6.8, 9.6.9, 9.6.10, 9.6.11, 9.6.12, 9.6.13, 9.6.14, 9.6.15, 9.6.16, 9.6.17, 9.6.18,
Brief description: The PostgreSQL 9.6 release contains the following Major improvements:
- From now on, they allowed the Synchronous replication for several standby servers for better consistency.
- For this version, the full-text search can now search for phrases.
- They escape scanning pages throughout vacuum freeze operations.
- Specifically, in the area of scalability on multi-CPU-socket servers, they enhanced their high performance.
- They allowed the parallel execution for joins, sequential scans, and aggregates.
- From now on, the postgres_fdw will support remote joins, Updates, sorts, and Deletes.
Release: PostgreSQL 10
Release Date: October 5, 2017
Versions: 10.0, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13
Brief description: This release includes some significant improvements, which are as follows:
- In this, we have more robust password verification based on SCRAM-SHA-256.
- They enhanced the query parallelism.
- Upgraded monitoring and control.
- The logical replication can be done with the help of publishing and subscribe.
- In this, they allowed declarative table partitioning.
Release: PostgreSQL 11
Release Date: October 18, 2018
Versions: 11.0, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8
Brief description: The first version of the PostgreSQL 11 release is 11.0, which includes the following improvements based on the previous releases.
- This version will cover the indexes, which will be created with the help of the INCLUDE clause of CREATE INDEX.
- They support embedded transactions for the SQL stored procedures.
- They enhanced partitioning functionality.
- From this version, they added UPDATE statements, which are used to modify a partition key column.
- In this version, the developers have expanded the SELECT performance for better partition elimination strategies during query planning and execution.
Release: PostgreSQL 12
Release Date: October 3, 2019
Versions: 12.0, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3
Brief description: This is the latest release of PostgreSQL, which has a different version, and 12.3 is the latest version of PostgreSQL.
Here, we are going to discuss the latest modification and enchantment of this release:
- In this, they stored generated columns.
- They add new features for authentication like the discovery of LDAP servers with the help of DNS SRV records, Encryption of TCP/IP connection while using the GSSAPI Authentication.
- Improvements to administrative functionality.
- Optimizations to space, use, read, and write performance for B-tree indexes.
- They support covering for GiST indexes, through the INCLUDE clause.