What is a Directory
A directory is a table which contains all its files Inode number and connect it to the file system.
Look at the above snapshot, command "ls -ali new1" displays all the files of directory new1.
Dot (.) and DotDot (..)
By looking at the earlier snapshot, you can notice there are two files with file name dot (.) and dotdot (.)
The dot (.) is a mapping to itself and the dotdot (.) is a mapping to the parent directory.