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100+ Linux Commands

Let's see the list of top 100+ Linux commands which are commonly used. This list is helpful for beginners and professionals both.

Commands Description
alias Converts complex commands into simpler one.
bzip2 / bunzip2 Compresses a file / Deompress a bzip2 file.
bzcat / bzmore Displays files compressed with bzip2.
cal Displays calendar.
cat It is a multi-function command.
cd Changes current working directory.
chage Sets an expiration date for a user account.
chgrp Changes group.
chmod Changes permission for a file or directory.
chown Changes the owner of a file or directory.
chsh Changes the shell.
clear Clears the terminal.
comm Compares two streams or files.
cp Copies file content from one file to other file.
cut Used to display desired column from a file.
date Displays current date.
df Checks the disk space in system.
echo Prints the typed word on terminal.
exit Exits from the current user group to the last group.
export Exports shell variables to other shell.
file Displays the type of file.
find Finds files for a particular search.
gpasswd Transfers group membership to another user.
grep Filters lines of text containing a certain string.
groupadd Creates a group.
groupdel Permanently removes a group.
groupmod Changes group name.
groups Displays the group name to which current user belongs to.
gzip / gunzip Compresses a file / Decompress a gzip file.
head Displays first ten lines of a file.
history Displays older commands from shell command history.
HISTSIZE Determines the number of commands to be stored in current environment.
HISTFILE Displays the file that contains the history.
HISTFILESIZE Sets the number of commands kept in history file.
id Tells about the user's id in the system.
less Displays file content according to the width of the terminal.
locate Searches a file in the database.
ls Lists all the files of a directory.
man Displays the manual page for the specified command.
mkdir Creates directory.
more Displays one output screen at a time.
mv Renames directories or files.
od Displays a file content in octal format.
passwd Set password for a user group.
pwd Display the current working directory location.
PS1 Change the prompt name in terminal.
rename Renames more than one file at once.
rm Removes a file.
rmdir Removes a directory.
set -o noclobber Prevents file from getting overwrite.
set +o noclobber Allows overwriting in existing file.
set -u Displays undefined variables as error.
set +u Displays nothing for undefined variable.
set -x Displays shell expansion.
set +x Disables shell expansion.
sed Performs editing in streams.
sleep Waits for the specified number of seconds.
sort sorts the content in alphabetical order.
su Allows a user to run a shell as another user.
sudo Allows a user to start a program with credentials of another user.
tac Displays file content in opposite order.
tail Displays last ten lines of a file.
tar Compresses a directory.
tee Puts stdin on stdout and then into a file.
time Displays time taken to execute a command.
touch Creates an empty file.
tr Translates characters.
type Displays information about command type.
uniq Sorts and display multi times repeating lines only once.
unset Removes a variable from shell.
useradd Adds users.
userdel Deletes users.
usermod Modifies the properties of a user.
vi Opens vi editor to write a program.
w Displays who is logged on and what are they doing.
wc Counts words, lines and characters.
who Tells who is logged on the system.
whoami Tells the name of the user.
who am i Displays the line pointing to your current session.
zcat / zmore Views the files compressed with gzip.

Linux Symbols

Symbols Function
& (ampersand) Returns the shell prompt back without waiting for the command to finish.
; (semicolon) Write two or more commands on the same line separated by (;).
$? (dollar question mark) Exit code of prevoius command is stored in the form of 0 or 1.
|| (double vertical bar) Represent a logical OR.
&& (double ampersand) Represent a logical AND.
# (pound sign) Consider the words typed after it as comment.
\ (escaping special character) Enable the use of control characters.
*(asterisk) Generate output matching to the specified * with any number of characters.
? (question mark) Generate output matching to the specified ? with exaxtly one character.
[] (square brackets) Generate output matching any number of characters between the [].
!! (bang bang) Repeat last command in bash.
! (bang) Repeat commands other than the last one in bash.

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