Microcontroller in Robotics
Microcontroller is the advanced version of microprocessors. It contain on chip central processing unit (CPU), Read only memory (ROM), Random access memory (RAM), input/output unit, interrupts controller etc.
Therefore a microcontroller is used for high speed signal processing operation inside an embedded system. It acts as major component used in designing of an embedded system.
Consider the block diagram of microcontroller:
Basic components of Microcontroller
- Arithmetic and Logic unit (ALU) - ALU inside a microcontroller used to perform the arithmetic and logic operation. It performs the logic operation on the data stored inside a register.
- Accumulator -Accumulator is the register inside which the intermediate arithmetic and logical operation data is stored.
- Working registers - Registers are the storage device used to store the data inside a microcontroller in different address location.
- Program counter - Program counter is used for counting the number of program executed inside a microcontroller.
- Stack pointer - Stack pointer act as a pointer to the certain address. It is a register used to store the address of the last program request made by the processor inside a stack.
- Clock circuit - Clock circuit is used for generate the clock pulse required as a reference signal for the microcontroller.
- Interrupt circuit - Interrupt circuit is used for generating the interrupt signal when the higher priority process required to be served first on basis of priority by microcontroller.
- Internal ROM - Internal ROM is read only memory used to store the information in embedded system. It acts as a main memory for storing the instruction and data inside a microcontroller.
- I/O ports - I/O ports are used for connecting input devices like sensor, keyboard etc with input ports and output devices like LCD, buzzer etc with output ports available in microcontroller.
Consider the schematic representation of Atmega-16 Microcontroller circuit on eagle software is,
Consider the PCB board layout after completing the routing between the terminals of microcontroller and header is,
After completion of board layout it is run to generate PDF. The PDF generated is used for taking the printout of above layout on Over Head Projector sheet (known as OHP sheets) or a wax paper for designing a PCB board.