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What is the full form of FIR

FIR: First Information Report

FIR stands for First Information Report. It is a written document prepared by Police when they receive information about a cognizable offense.

In a cognizable offense, a Police officer has the authority to make an arrest without a warrant.

It is a complaint generally filed by the victim or someone else on his/her behalf. When the FIR is registered by the Police, a signed copy is also given to the victim or the same person who filed the FIR. Police cannot refuse to register an FIR as it is against the law.

An FIR is a very important document because it helps in the process of criminal justice. Only after the FIR is registered the Police can start the investigation. Once an FIR is registered, the content of the FIR can't be changed except by a ruling from the High Court or the Supreme Court of India.

FIR full form

The information in the FIR register is maintained at every police station. An FIR page contains the following information.

  • FIR number
  • Victim's name or the name of the person who reports the complaint
  • Name and description of the offender (if known)
  • Description of the offence
  • Place and time of the offence
  • Witnesses, if any.

Rules to file an FIR

  • Anyone can file an FIR who knows about the commission of the cognizable offence.
  • Police must write it down when the information about the commission of the cognizable offence is given orally.
  • The victim or the person who is filing the complaint has the right to demand that the information recorded by the Police be read to him/her.
  • Once the information is recorded, it must be signed by the person giving the information. If the person cannot write, he or she can put the left thumb impression on the document.
  • After filing the FIR, you should take a copy of the FIR. It is your right to ask for a copy of the FIR free of cost if the Police do not provide it to you.

Legal Consequences of an FIR

The criminal justice system is affected in a significant way by the filing of an FIR. The Police are required to look into the incident and take appropriate action after an FIR has been filed. According to Indian law, it is illegal to fail to register an FIR for a crime that is punishable by a fine.

The FIR is a significant record that may be used in court as proof. It can be used to support the complainant's and other witnesses' testimony and is admissible in court as proof of the Police's first tip. The material in the FIR can also be utilized to determine the specifics of the offense, its scope, the accused person's name, and other pertinent information.

The accused may be taken into custody and charged with the crime if the inquiry turns up proof of illegal behavior. The charges are based on the FIR, which also acts as the foundation for the prosecution's case. By ensuring that individuals who perpetrate crimes are held responsible, the FIR serves a critical function in the criminal justice system.

It is crucial to remember that filing an FIR does not ensure a conviction. The accused is still entitled to a fair trial and the assumption of innocence until proven guilty, and the prosecution must still establish the accused's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

Furthermore, making a fraudulent or malicious FIR might result in severe legal repercussions. Under Indian law, which has penalties for making false claims or fabricating evidence, anybody who files a fraudulent or malicious FIR may be punished. This is done to make sure that only legitimate complaints are lodged and to stop the FIR system from being abused.

The Restrictions of an FIR

There are restrictions on the scope and efficacy of an FIR, despite the fact that it is a crucial document in the criminal justice system. A few of an FIR's restrictions include:

  1. Limited scope: Only specific offenses that are regarded as legally cognizable may be the subject of an FIR. The Police are unable to file an FIR for non-cognizable offenses. Thus the complainant must go straight to the court.
  2. Delayed filing: When a complainant waits to file an FIR, it may weaken their case and make it more challenging for the Police to conduct a thorough investigation. Delayed filing might also offer the accused the chance to tamper with or delete evidence.
  3. Inaccurate or incomplete information: This might hinder the investigation and undermine the case if it is included in an FIR. At the time of filing the FIR, the complainant might not have all the required information, or she might choose not to disclose it out of fear or for other reasons.
  4. Prejudice or bias: The FIR may have been submitted with a prejudicial or biased viewpoint, which might have an impact on the investigation and the fairness of the trial. The complainant can harbor a personal grudge towards the accused or could have been swayed by other forces.
  5. Misuse: The FIR may occasionally be filed with malevolent purposes, such as to harass the accused or demand money from him or her. This may result in abuse of the judicial system and harm to innocent individuals.
  6. There is no witness protection: The investigation and prosecution may be hampered if witnesses worry about reprisals or intimidation. Witnesses could not be adequately protected by the Police, which could keep them from sharing crucial information.
  7. Human error: The FIR may contain flaws or errors that result from human error, which might have an impact on the investigation and the case's conclusion. Inaccuracies in the specifics of the offense, the identification of the accused, or the taking of statements are examples of this.

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