What is the full form of ICWA
1) ICWA: Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India
ICWA stands for Institute of Cost and Works Accountants of India. It is now called Institutes of Cost Accounts (ICAI) of India. The institute is a licensed body for cost accountancy management in India. The primary objective of this professional body is to regulate and develop the profession of cost accountancy in India by providing coaching and training in the field of cost and management accountancy.
It was established on May 28, 1959, under the Cost and Works Accountant Act, 1959. Its headquarters is at Kolkata in India and its regional offices are in New Delhi, Chennai and Mumbai.
You become a Cost Accountant after completing the ICWA course. Cost Accountant is basically a cost auditor who audits the cost sheets. Cost Accountants are in huge demand in government and various private sectors such as pharmaceutical, banking, finance and education. They can also work independently as cost accountants or as a firm in partnership with other cost accountants.
2) ICWA: Indian Child Welfare Act
ICWA stands for Indian Child Welfare Act. It is a Federal Law for the welfare of American Indian Children. The law governs the jurisdiction over the removal of Native American Indian children from their families. The act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1978 to set standards for the removal and placement of American Indian children in foster and adoptive homes.
Need of ICWA
There was a time in American History when a large number of American Indian and Alaska Native Children were removed from their families and placed in non-native foster and adoptive homes. It is believed that around 30 percent of the native children were removed from their families by the public and private agencies. They got separated from their culture and identities. It badly affected the lives of tribal people and this led to the enforcement of Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) in 1978.
The Act sets the minimum federal requirements for the removal of American Indian children from their families. It applies to state child custody proceedings related to American Indian Children. The act requires the placement of American Indian children only in those foster and adoptive homes which reflect the values of American Indian culture.