What is the full form of PIL
PIL: Public Interest Litigation
PIL stands for Public Interest Litigation. It refers to a legal action or use of law to promote human rights and equality or raise the issue of public concern.
It is always a litigation (legal action) for a public interest or any act for the benefit of the public. In this, legal action is initiated in a court of law for the implementation of public interest or general interest or if the legal rights or liabilities of people are affected. Any person or a group of people can file a PIL. However, it should not be for their personal gain or related to their personal agenda.
PIL is introduced as a practice that focuses on the citizens of the country and allows the public participation in judicial review of administrative action to make the judicial process more democratic. Its main objective is to protect the people of the nation and raise the cause of minorities and disadvantaged groups or individuals by taking legal action for their benefit.
It allows ordinary people access to the law to acquire legal redress for a more substantial problem which has a broader public interest or affects the public at large, instead of affecting a single person. It cannot be filed for private gain. If the court thinks that the PIL has public significance, it will take the responsibility and appoint a lawyer to fight the case.
So, we can say that the judicial system in India allows an individual or group of people to initiate litigation just by addressing a letter to a judge. A PIL can be filed directly filed in a High Court or the Supreme Court. It is a right given to people to advocate a public cause by seeking judicial for redressal of public injury or matters related to public interest like road safety, polluted environments, constructional hazards, etc.
Some of the circumstances where one can use PIL are as follows: