Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Environmental Studies MCQ

1) Environmental studies is defined as the branch that deals with the:

  1. Design, study, and discovery of new materials.
  2. The study of humanities, social, biological, and physical sciences.
  3. Incorporate the information and physical sciences.
  4. Approach about the natural world and the impact of humans on its integrity.

Answer: (d) Approach about the natural world and the impact of humans on its integrity.

Explanation: Environmental studies deal with the issues that affect the life of a living organism. It can be various factors that relates to the natural world and the human impact on it.

The other three options are related to material science, general studies, and environmental science.


2) Which of the following statement about the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) is true?

  1. It was established in 1890 at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta.
  2. It is the first crocodile conservation breeding center in Asia.
  3. It was established in 1916 to do an organized survey of fauna in India.
  4. It was established in 1982 for research in Wildlife Management.

Answer: (c) It was established in 1916 to do an organized survey of fauna in India.

Explanation: Zoological Survey of India was established on July 1, 1916. It was founded to promote the research and survey of the fauna in India. ZSI has millions of specimens till date. The collection of specimens by the ZSI is considered the largest collection in Asia.


3) Which layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone responsible for the absorption of UV (Ultra-Violet) light?

  1. Stratosphere
  2. Troposphere
  3. Mesosphere
  4. None of these

Answer: (a) Stratosphere

Explanation: The ozone present absorbs UV light in the stratosphere. It is the most important aspect of the atmosphere that makes life possible on Earth.


4) The estimated percentage of the forest land that ideally India should have is:

  1. 50%
  2. 15%
  3. 33%
  4. 44%

Answer: (c) 33%

Explanation: India has a current forest land of about 12%. The ideal forest land area is 33%, while in hills and mountains it is around 45%. It means the estimated forest land in mountains and hills should e two-third. Thus, India needs to increase the forest land to increase the forest cover.


5) Which two countries of the world constitute about 57% of the large dams?

  1. India and China
  2. India and Brazil
  3. China and Brazil
  4. India and Japan

Answer: (a) India and China

Explanation: The dams act as a storage space for floods. It reduces the effect of the flood on millions of people. It is also suggested that around 40% of the irrigated land depends on dams.


6) The essential non-metallic minerals are:

  1. Granite, marble, limestone
  2. Gold, silver, platinum
  3. Iron, aluminum, zinc, copper
  4. Coal, clay, cement, silica

Answer: (d) Coal, clay, cement, silica

Explanation: Non-metallic minerals do not have metals or fuel as their source.


7) Integrated Crop Management is defined as a process to:

  1. Use the traditional methods for growing crops.
  2. Using alternatives to inorganic fertilizers and pesticides.
  3. Both (a) and (b)
  4. None of the above

Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)

Explanation: The usage of traditional growing crop methods lowers the chance of complete failure of the crops. The research and studies have also shown that using alternatives to inorganic fertilizers and pesticides can also reduce crop failure chances. It is defined as Integrated Crop Management.


8) Which three edible plant species constitute about 60% supply of the world's food energy intake?

  1. Wheat, Barley, Oat
  2. Wheat, Rice, Maize
  3. Wheat, Barley, maize
  4. None of these

Answer: (b) Wheat, Rice, Maize

Explanation: The three essential edible species that constitute about 60% of the world's food energy intake are wheat, rice, and maize. The large producers of these three edible species in India are Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Madhya Pradesh.


9) Which of the following is not a measure of sustainable water management?

  1. Preventing leakage from dams and canals
  2. Reducing the rate of surface run-off water.
  3. Preventing loss in the municipal pipes.
  4. Building small reservoirs in place of a few mega projects.

Answer: (b) reducing the rate of surface run-off water.

Explanation: The reduction of the surface run-off water rate is the function of the forest. The role of sustainable water management is to organize campaigns to increase awareness of water scarcity.


10) Which element is considered the largest source of world's commercial energy consumption?

  1. Coal
  2. Oil
  3. Natural gas
  4. Nuclear

Answer: (b) Oil

Explanation: Coal was the largest energy source round the 19th century. But, today, oil is considered the largest source of commercial energy consumption. It constitutes around 39%. Coal has a percentage of energy consumption around 24%.


11) What are the two forms of alcohol are included in biofuels?

  1. Ethanol and methanol
  2. Ethanol and propanol
  3. Methanol and propanol
  4. None of the above

Answer: (a) Ethanol and methanol

Explanation: Biofuels or liquid fuels use two forms of alcohol namely ethanol and methanol.


12) What is the world's largest potential source of biomass energy?

  1. Animal waste
  2. Industrial waste
  3. Fibrous waste of the paper industry
  4. Fibrous waste of the sugar industry

Answer: (d) Fibrous waste of the sugar industry

Explanation: Fibrous waste is a by-product that is obtained after the juice is extracted from the sugar cane. It is also termed as Bagasse.


13) The functional aspects of the ecosystem are:

  1. Energy cycles
  2. Nutrient cycles
  3. Food chains
  4. All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: The Ecosystem comprises of the living and non-living parts that are linked to each other. The functional aspects of the ecosystem are nutrient cycles, food chains, and energy cycles.


14) Which of the following is also called Detrivores?

  1. Herbivores
  2. Decomposers
  3. Carnivores
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Decomposers

Explanation: Decomposers are the group of small animals, such as bacteria, worms, etc. It breaks down the dead organic material into simple smaller substances.


15) What are 'keystone' species in an ecosystem?

  1. The species whose elimination can seriously affect the ecosystem.
  2. The species whose elimination can benefit the ecosystem.
  3. The species whose elimination would not affect the ecosystem.
  4. None of the above

Answer: (a) The species whose elimination can seriously affect the ecosystem.

Explanation: Extinction occurs due to various human activities, such as deforestation, draining wetlands, etc. The elimination of some species can harm the ecosystem. Such species are called keystone species.

Hence, the correct answer is an option (a).


16) Which of the following activity is incorrect about the impact of human activities on the ecosystem?

  1. Depletion of ground water
  2. Extinction of species
  3. Decrease of forest area
  4. None of the above

Answer: (d) None of the above

Explanation: The ecosystem is disrupted due to human activities, which results in the depletion of ground water, extinction of species, decrease of forest area, and many more.

Hence, the correct option is answer (d).


17) Which element is a building block of both animals and plant tissues?

  1. Sulfur
  2. Carbon
  3. Nitrogen
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Carbon

Explanation: Carbon is a basic building block of both animals and plants tissue. Carbon occurs in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide.


18) Which human activity can decreases the oxygen levels present in the atmosphere?

  1. Deforestation
  2. Animal hunting
  3. Mining
  4. Both (a) and (c)

Answer: (a) Deforestation

Explanation: Deforestation is the activity of removing trees for commercial purposes. The decrease of plants and trees adversely affects oxygen levels. Hence, deforestation reduces the amount of oxygen present in the atmosphere.


19) A large number of interlinked chains in an ecosystem together forms a:

  1. Nitrogen cycle
  2. Carbon cycle
  3. Food web
  4. Food chain

Answer: (c) Food web

Explanation: The interlinked chains in an ecosystem together form a food web, which is a basic part of an ecosystem. If the links are disturbed due to any human activities, it can result in loss of various species of an ecosystem.


20) The type of forests grown in the Himalayan mountain region is called:

  1. Broad-leaved forests
  2. Coniferous forests
  3. Deciduous forests
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Coniferous forests

Explanation: Coniferous forests grow in regions where the temperature is low. The leaves of these forests are needle-like with downward sloping branches. It makes the snow easily slip off from the trees.


21) Which one of the following is not direct use of forest products?

  1. Bamboo for baskets
  2. Medicine
  3. Gums and resins
  4. Grass for grazing

Answer: (c) Gums and resins

Explanation: The other three options are the direct use of forest products. Gums and resins are the processes product from the trees. Hence, it is an indirect forest product.


22) Which of the following is a forest service?

  1. Reduces the surface run-off rain water.
  2. Prevents soil erosion.
  3. Regulate the local temperature.
  4. All of the above.

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: Forests control the flow of water, reduces the surface run-off water, prevent the soil erosion, and regulates the local temperature.

Hence, the correct answer is an option (d).


23) Which of the following is not a reason for the forest loss?

  1. Increasing use of wood
  2. Extinction of species
  3. Extensive use of fuel woods
  4. Mining and building dams

Answer: (b) Extinction of species

Explanation: Extinction of species is a result due to increasing human activities. The increased use of wood, fuel woods, mining, and building dams has led to the forests' rapid shrinking.


24) Which insects live and breed in the forest area?

  1. Bees
  2. Moths
  3. Butterflies
  4. All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: Bees, moths, and butterflies are the insects that live and breed in the forest area. The degradation of the forest area results in the decrease of these insects in abundance.


25) Jowar and Bajra grow in the areas that have:

  1. High moisture
  2. Little moisture
  3. No moisture
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Little moisture

Explanation: The areas around the water-courses have less moisture. Hence, Jowar and Bajra are grown in areas that have little moisture.


26) Which of the following activity can lower the water table?

  1. Soil erosion
  2. Growth of human population
  3. Over extraction of groundwater
  4. Over grazing

Answer: (c) Over extraction of groundwater

Explanation: It refers to the excess withdrawal of the ground water with the help of tube-wells. It can lower the water table and can create a dry surrounding. A water table is an area between the soil surface and the rock sediments.


27) Brackish water ecosystems are found in which of the following:

  1. Streams
  2. Wetlands
  3. Coastal shallows
  4. Deltas

Answer: (d) Deltas

Explanation: Brackish water is found in river deltas that are generally covered by the mangrove forests.


28) Which of the following factors leads to Eutrophication?

  1. Excessive use of fertilizers
  2. Increase of plant nutrients
  3. Both (a) and (b)
  4. None of the above

Answer: (c) Both (a) and (b)

Explanation: Eutrophication is caused due to various factors, such as excessive use of fertilizers, etc., that cause an increase in nutrients. These nutrients increase the underwater vegetation in aquatic ecosystems. It further leads to the destruction of the habitat beneath it.


29) Which of the following is not a Biogeographic zone of India?

  1. Thar Desert of Rajasthan
  2. The Brahmaputra Plains
  3. South-east zone
  4. North-east zone

Answer: (c) South-east zone

Explanation: South-east zone is not rich in species. Hence, it is not considered as a Biogeographic zone of India. The region known for its plants and animal species is known as the Biogeographic region.


30) Which day is celebrated as World Environment day?

  1. June 10th
  2. June 5th
  3. July 5th
  4. October 20th

Answer: (b) June 5th

Explanation: Environment day is celebrated on June 5 to remind and people aware of protecting the environment.


31) What will be the impact of the absence of ants on the Earth?

  1. No effect
  2. Destroys life
  3. A little adverse impact
  4. Decrease in termites

Answer: (b) Destroys life

Explanation: The ants play an essential role in existence of life on Earth. The absence of ants may increase the population of termites. Ants introduce air into the soil that allows the water and oxygen to reach the roots in the soil. Hence, the absence of ants may destroy life on the Earth.


32) Name the drug associated with the plant source tea or coffee?

  1. Opium Poppy
  2. Thorn apple
  3. Caffeine
  4. Camphor

Answer: (c) Caffeine

Explanation: The tea or coffee contains the drug caffeine that has various benefits, such as improved brain functioning, memory, etc.

Hence, the correct option is an answer (c).


33) Which sacred grove act as the gene banks for wild plants?

  1. Deorais
  2. Jahera
  3. Mauhak
  4. None of these

Answer: (a) Deorais

Explanation: Deorais is the largest number of sacred groves in India. It also acts as a gene banks for wild plants.


34) What are the numbers of biodiversity hotspots in the world?

  1. 18
  2. 28
  3. 32
  4. 36

Answer: (d) 36

Explanation: The 36 hotspots of the world specify the number of endemic species existing in a particular hotspot.


35) The major part of the extinction of species occurs in which of the following bio-rich areas?

  1. Tropical forests
  2. Wetlands
  3. Coral reefs
  4. All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: The extinction also occurs in the bio-rich areas and constitutes a major part of the extinction. The bio-rich areas where extinction occurs are tropical forests, coral reefs, and wetlands.


36) Which of the following species is used in indigenous medicine?

  1. Zizyphus
  2. Tamarind
  3. Babul
  4. None of the above

Answer: (d) None of the above

Explanation: Neem is used in making indigenous medicines. The Zizyphus and tamarind are the types of small and large trees, while tamarind is a type of thorny species.


37) Which of the following element is responsible for groundwater pollution in various states?

  1. Chlorine
  2. Fluoride
  3. Chemicals
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Fluoride

Explanation: Fluoride enters through the drinking water and combines with the bones in a human body. It can lead to permanent joint deformities. The high fluoride concentration in the ground water is a major problem in most developing countries.


38) The most frequent and naturally occurring disaster is:

  1. Drought
  2. Tsunami
  3. Flood
  4. Earthquake

Answer: (c) Flood

Explanation: The most frequent and naturally occurring disasters across the country are floods. It arises due to the irregularities of the monsoon in various parts of the country.


39) The worst natural hazards in the tropics are:

  1. Tropical cyclones
  2. Tsunami
  3. Floods
  4. None of the above

Answer: (a) Tropical cyclones

Explanation: Tropics are the areas of intense low pressure. These cyclones generally occur near the equator over the warm ocean waters. Severe tropical cyclones can be 2 to 3 in a year.


40) UNCED stands for:

  1. United Nations Corporation on Environment and Development
  2. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
  3. United Nations Corporation on Environment and Disasters
  4. United Nations Conference on Environment and Disasters

Answer: (b) United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

Explanation: It was the conference organized in Rio in 1992. It shows that the environment and development of the nation are closely related. Hence, the care and protection of the Earth and its species is the need of today.


41) Which of the following material is not used in urban housing is very energy intensive?

  1. Steel
  2. Cement
  3. Burnt bricks
  4. Silver

Answer: (d) Silver

Explanation: Silver is not used as a material in urban housing. It is not used in the construction of housing because it is expensive. It also lacks tensile strength and structural qualities.


42) The worst sufferers of environmental destruction are:

  1. Rich
  2. Moderate class
  3. Poor
  4. All of the above

Answer: (c) Poor

Explanation: Poor people suffer the most in environmental destruction. It is due to overcrowded urban areas, lack of food resources, shortage of fuel-wood, etc. It also increases the risk of diseases among the poor.


43) The adaption of traditional medicine in industrialized countries is termed as CAM, which stands for:

  1. Cooperative and Alternative Medicine
  2. Complementary and Associative Medicine
  3. Cooperative and Associative Medicine
  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Answer: (d) Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Explanation: The traditional medicines are inexpensive and easily available.


44) The single largest preventable cause of cancer is:

  1. Tobacco smoking
  2. Alcohol consumption
  3. Both (a) and (b)
  4. None of the above

Answer: (a) Tobacco smoking

Explanation: Almost 80% of lung cancer deaths are due to tobacco smoking. All other types of cancer are also related to tobacco chewing.


45) Which of the following is the key measure to reduce the number of diarrhea cases?

  1. Improved sanitation
  2. Food hygiene
  3. Safe drinking water
  4. All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: Various factors such as proper food hygiene, improved sanitation, and safe water for drinking prevent the spread of diarrhea.


46) Which element present in the drinking water can lead to various fatal diseases?

  1. Calcium
  2. Arsenic
  3. Phosphorus
  4. None of the above

Answer: (b) Arsenic

Explanation: The presence of Arsenic in the drinking water is a serious threat to human health. It is due to the arsenic-rich rocks where the water is filtered. It results in the addition of Arsenic after passing through the rocks.


47) Hepatitis A is a type of:

  1. Water-borne disease
  2. Air-borne disease
  3. Food contamination
  4. Both (a) and (c)

Answer: (d) Both (a) and (c)

Explanation: Hepatitis A is generally caused by food and water contamination through chemical waste, urban sewage, agriculture waste, etc.


48) Forest Conservation act was amended in which of the following year?

  1. 1952
  2. 1963
  3. 1988
  4. 1978

Answer: (c) 1988

Explanation: The Forest Conservation Act was amended to create and protect the Reserve Forests for government use.


49) Which of the following gases are not permitted to release by the Government Prevention and Control of Pollution Act?

  1. Nitrogen Oxide
  2. Sulfur Dioxide
  3. Carbon monoxide
  4. All of the above

Answer: (d) All of the above

Explanation: The above gases are toxic and are restricted by the Government. The toxic nature of these gases exists beyond a prescribed level.


50) The 3R principle is in which of the following order:

  1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  2. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle
  3. Recycle, Reuse, Reduce,
  4. None of the above

Answer: (a) Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Explanation: The 3R principle states that the reduction, reuse, and recycle are the proper method to dispose the residual waste. It does not harm the environment and can be easily followed by everyone.


Next TopicWhat is PDFescape




Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now

Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Preparation


Trending Technologies


B.Tech / MCA