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Research Methodology MCQ

1) Who was the author of the book named "Methods in Social Research"?

  1. Kerlinger
  2. CR Kothari
  3. Goode and Hatt
  4. Wilkinson

Answer: c) Goode and Halt

Explanation: The book named "Methods in Social Research" was authored by Goode and Hatt on Dec 01, 1952, which was specifically aimed to improve student's knowledge as well as response skills.


2) What is the major attribute of Correlation Analysis?

  1. Association among variables
  2. Difference among variables
  3. Regression among variables
  4. Variations among variables

Answer: a) Association among variables

Explanation: Mainly the correlational analysis focus on finding the association between one or more quantitative independent variables and one or more quantitative dependent variables.


3) What is the name of the conceptual framework in which the research is carried out?

  1. Research hypothesis
  2. Synopsis of Research
  3. Research paradigm
  4. Research design

Answer: d) Research design

Explanation: A conceptual framework can be understood as a Research design that you require before research.


4) What is the main role of research in education?

  1. To upsurge one's social status.
  2. To increase one's job prospects.
  3. To augment one's personal growth.
  4. To help an applicant in becoming a renowned educationalist.

Answer: d) To help an applicant in becoming a renowned educationalist

Explanation: Educational research can be defined as an assurance for reviewing and improving educational practice, which will result in becoming a renowned educationalist.


5) Which of the following features are considered as critical in qualitative research?

  1. Collecting data with the help of standardized research tools.
  2. Design sampling with probability sample techniques.
  3. Collecting data with bottom-up empirical evidence.
  4. Gathering data with top-down schematic evidence.

Answer: c) Collecting data with bottom-up empirical evidence.

Explanation: In qualitative research, we use an inductive methodology that starts from particular to general. In other words, we study society from the bottom, then move upward to make the theories.


6) How is random sampling helpful?

  1. Reasonably accurate
  2. An economical method of data collection
  3. Free from personal biases
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: In random sampling, for each element of the set, there exist a possibility to get selected.


7) A research intends to explore the result of possible factors for the organization of effective mid-day meal interventions. Which research method will be most appropriate for this study?

  1. Descriptive survey method
  2. Historical method
  3. Ex-post facto method
  4. Experimental method

Answer: c) Ex-post facto method

Explanation: Mainly in the ex-post facto method, the existing groups with qualities are compared on some dependent variable. It is also known as quasi-experimental for the fact that instead of randomly assigning the subjects, they are grouped on the basis of a particular characteristic or trait.


8) Tippit table refers to as _________

  1. Table of random digits
  2. The table used in sampling methods
  3. The table used in statistical investigations
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: Tippit table was first published by L.H.C Tippett in 1927.


9) In order to pursue the research, which of the following is priorly required?

  1. Developing a research design
  2. Formulating a research question
  3. Deciding about the data analysis procedure
  4. Formulating a research hypothesis

Answer: b) Formulating a research question

Explanation: Before starting with research, it is necessary to have a research question or a topic because once the problem is identified, then we can decide the research design.


10) The format of thesis writing is the same as in

  1. Writing of Seminar representation
  2. Preparation of research paper/article
  3. A research dissertation
  4. Presenting a workshop/conference paper

Answer: c) A research dissertation

Explanation: The format of thesis writing is similar to that of a research dissertation, or we can simply say that dissertation is another word for a thesis.


11) Which one among the following statements is false in the context of participatory research?

  1. It recognizes knowledge as power
  2. It is a collective process of inquiry
  3. It emphasizes people as experts
  4. Its sole purpose is the production of knowledge

Answer: d) Its sole purpose is the production of knowledge

Explanation: Participatory action research is a kind of research that stresses participation and action.


12) Which one among the following statement is true in the context of the testing of hypotheses?

  1. It is only the alternative hypotheses that can be tested.
  2. It is only the null hypotheses that can be tested.
  3. Both the alternative and the null hypotheses can be tested.
  4. Both the alternative and the null hypotheses cannot be tested.

Answer: b) It is only the null hypothesis that can be tested.

Explanation: Hypotheses testing evaluates its plausibility by using sample data.


13) What are the conditions in which Type-I error occurs?

  1. The null hypotheses get accepted even if it is false
  2. The null hypotheses get rejected even if it is true
  3. Both the null hypotheses as well as alternative hypotheses are rejected
  4. None of the above

Answer: b) The null hypotheses get rejected even if it is true

Explanation: The Type-I Error can be defined as the first kind of error.


14) Research and Development become the index of development of the country. Which of the following reasons are true with regards to this statement?

  1. R&D targets human development
  2. R&D can enhance people's standard of living in the country
  3. R&D reflects the actual economic and social conditions being prevailed in the country
  4. All the above

Answer: d) All of the above.

Explanation: No explanation.


15) What does the longitudinal research approach actually deal with?

  1. Long-term research
  2. Short-term research
  3. Horizontal research
  4. None of the above

Answer: a) Long-term research

Explanation: In general, the longitudinal approach is long-term research in which the researchers keep on examining similar individuals to detect if any change has occurred over a while.


16) What do you understand by the term "Anusandhan"?

  1. Goal-oriented
  2. Following an aim
  3. Attaining an aim
  4. Praying to achieve an aim

Answer: b) Following an aim

Explanation: No explanation.


17) Evaluation Research is concerned with __________

  1. How well are we doing?
  2. Why are we doing?
  3. What are we doing?
  4. None of the above

Answer: a) How well are we doing?

Explanation: Instead of focusing on the process, the evaluation research measures the consequences of the process, for example, if the objectives are met or not.


18) Which of the following does not correspond to characteristics of research?

  1. Research is not passive
  2. Research is systematic
  3. Research is not a problem-oriented
  4. Research is not a process

Answer: d) Research is not a process

Explanation: Research is an inspired and systematic work that is undertaken by the researchers to intensify expertise.


19) Which of the following options are the main tasks of research in modern society?

  1. To learn new things
  2. To keep pace with the advancement in knowledge
  3. To systematically examine and critically analyze the investigations/sources with the objective
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: Research is an inspired and systematic work that is undertaken by the researchers to intensify expertise.


20) What is the main aim of interdisciplinary research?

  1. To over simplify the problem of research
  2. To bring out the holistic approach to research
  3. To create a new trend in research methodology
  4. To reduce the emphasis on a single subject in the research domain

Answer: b) To bring out the holistic approach to research

Explanation: Particularly in interdisciplinary research, it combines two or more hypothetical disciplines into one activity.


21) The main aim of the scientific method in the research field is to _________

  1. Improve data interpretation
  2. Confirm triangulation
  3. Introduce new variables
  4. Eliminate spurious relations

Answer: d) Eliminate spurious relations

Explanation: Scientific research aims to build knowledge by hypothesizing new theories and discovering laws.


22) A researcher is interested in studying the prospects of a particular political party in an urban area. So, what tool should he prefer for the study?

  1. Rating Scale
  2. Interview
  3. Questionnaire
  4. Schedule

Answer: c) Questionnaire

Explanation: Since it is an urban area, so there is a probability of literacy amongst a greater number of people. Also, there would be numerous questions over the ruling period of a political party, which cannot be simply answered by rating. The rating can only be considered if any political party has done some work, which is why the Questionnaire is used.


23) The conclusions/findings of which type of research cannot be generalized to other situations?

  1. Casual Comparative Research
  2. Historical Research
  3. Descriptive Research
  4. Experimental Research

Answer: b) Historical Research

Explanation: One cannot generalize historical research in the USA, which has been done in India.


24) How to judge the depth of any research?

  1. By research title
  2. By research duration
  3. By research objectives
  4. By total expenditure on research

Answer: c) By research objectives

Explanation: Research objectives concisely demonstrate what we are trying to achieve through the research.


25) Who can successfully conduct Research?

  1. Someone who is a hard worker
  2. Possesses post-graduation degree
  3. Has studied research methodology
  4. Possesses thinking and reasoning ability

Answer: c) Has studied research methodology

Explanation: Anyone who has studied the research methodology can undergo the research.


26) Which of the following is not the method of Research?

  1. Survey
  2. Historical
  3. Observation
  4. Philosophical

Answer: c) Observation

Explanation: Mainly the research method comprises strategies, processes or techniques that are being utilized to collect the data or evidence so as to reveal new information or create a better understanding of a topic.


27) A research problem is feasible only when

  1. It has utility and relevance
  2. It is new and adds something to knowledge
  3. It is researchable
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: A research problem can be defined as a statement about the area of interest, a condition that is required to be improved, a difficulty that has to be eradicated, or any disquieting question existing in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice that points to be solved.


28) Circle graphs are used to show

  1. How is one part related to other parts?
  2. How various sections share in the whole?
  3. How is one whole related to another whole?
  4. How are various parts related to the whole?

Answer: d) How are various parts related to the whole?

Explanation: A circle graph helps in visualizing information as well as the data.


29) Authenticity of a research finding is its

  1. Validity
  2. Objectivity
  3. Originality
  4. All of the above

Answer: b) Objectivity

Explanation: No explanation.


30) Which one is called non-probability sampling?

  1. Quota sampling
  2. Cluster sampling
  3. Systematic sampling
  4. Stratified random sampling

Answer: a) Quota sampling

Explanation: In non-probability sampling, all the members do not get an equal opportunity to participate in the study.


31) What does a good thesis involve?

a) Reducing punctuations as well as grammatical errors to minimalist
b) Correct reference citations
c) Consistency in the way of thesis writing
d) Well defined abstract

Select the answers from the codes given below:

  1. b), c) and d)
  2. a), b), c) and d)
  3. a), b) and c)
  4. a), b) and d)

Answer: B. a), b), c) and d)

Explanation: All of the above.


32) Which one among the following statements is correct in context to research?

a) Research refers to a series of systematic activity or activities undertaken to find out the solution to a problem.
b) It is a systematic, logical and unbiased process wherein verification of hypotheses, data analysis, interpretation and formation of principles can be done.
c) It is an intellectual inquiry or quest towards truth,
d) It enhances knowledge.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

  1. a), b), c) and d)
  2. a), b) and c)
  3. b), c) and d)
  4. a), c) and d)

Answer: A. a), b), c) and d)

Explanation: All of the above.


33) On what basis did Jean Piaget give his theory of cognitive development of humans?

  1. Evaluation Research
  2. Fundamental Research
  3. Applied Research
  4. Action Research

Answer: b) Fundamental Research

Explanation: Jean Piaget, in his cognitive-developmental theory, proposed the idea that children can actively construct knowledge simply by exploring and manipulating the world around them.


34) What are the core elements of a dissertation?

  1. Introduction; Data Collection; Data Analysis; Conclusions and Recommendations
  2. Executive Summary; Literature Review; Data Gathered; Conclusions; Bibliography
  3. Research Plan; Research Data; Analysis; References
  4. Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology; Results; Discussions and Conclusions

Answer: d) Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology; Results; Discussions and Conclusions

Explanation: The core elements of the dissertation are as follows:

Introduction; Literature Review; Research Methodology; Results; Discussions and Conclusions


35) "Sampling Cases" can be defined as

  1. Sampling using a sampling frame
  2. Identifying people who are suitable for research
  3. Literally the researcher's brief case
  4. A sampling of people, newspapers, television programs etc.

Answer: d) A sampling of people, newspapers, television programs etc.

Explanation: In general, sampling in case study research involves decisions made by the researchers regarding the strategies of sampling, the number of case studies, and the definition of the unit of analysis.


36) Which technique is generally followed when the population is finite?

  1. Systematic Sampling Technique
  2. Purposive Sampling Technique
  3. Area Sampling Technique
  4. None of the above

Answer: a) Systematic Sampling Technique

Explanation: Systematic sampling can be understood as a probability sampling method in which the members of the population are selected by the researchers at a regular interval.


37) Research problem is selected from the standpoint of

  1. Social relevance
  2. Financial support
  3. Researcher's interest
  4. Availability of relevant literature

Answer: a) Social relevance

Explanation: No explanation.


38) The F-test:

  1. Is essentially a two-tailed test.
  2. Is essentially a one-tailed test.
  3. Can be one-tailed as well as two-tailed depending on the hypotheses.
  4. Can never be one tailed test.

Answer: c) Can be one-tailed as well as two-tailed depending on the hypotheses

Explanation: An F-test corresponds to a statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis.


39) Which one among the following is the most comprehensive source of population data?

  1. Census
  2. National Sample Surveys
  3. Demographic Health Surveys
  4. National Family Health Surveys

Answer: a) Census

Explanation: Census is an official survey that keeps track of the population data.


40) The process not needed in experimental research is

  1. Controlling
  2. Observation
  3. Reference collection
  4. Manipulation and replication

Answer: b) Observation

Explanation: No explanation.


41) What are those conditions where a research problem is not viable?

  1. It is new and adds something to knowledge
  2. It can be researched
  3. It has utility and relevance
  4. It contains dependent and independent variables

Answer: d) It contains dependent and independent variables

Explanation: A research problem can be defined as a statement about the concerned area, a condition needed to be improved, a difficulty that has to be eliminated, or a troubling question existing in scholarly literature, in theory, or in practice pointing towards the need of delivering a deliberate investigation.


42) How can we enhance the research objective?

  1. By making it more valid
  2. By making it more reliable
  3. By making it more impartial
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: The research objectives must be concisely described before starting the research as it illustrates what we are going to achieve as an end result after the accomplishment.


43) Action-research can be understood as ___________

  1. A longitudinal research
  2. An applied research
  3. A kind of research being carried out to solve a specific problem
  4. All of the above

Answer: c) A kind of research being carried out to solve a specific problem

Explanation: In general, action research is termed as a philosophy or a research methodology, which is implemented in social sciences.


44) On what basis can one formulate the assumptions?

  1. The cultural background of the country
  2. Universities
  3. Some specific characteristics of castes
  4. All of the above

Answer: a) The cultural background of the country

Explanation: An assumption can be identified as an unexamined belief, which we contemplate without even comprehending it. Also, the conclusions that we draw are often based on assumptions.


45) Which one among the following falls under the category of research development?

  1. Descriptive Research
  2. Philosophical Research
  3. Action Research
  4. All of the above

Answer: d) All of the above

Explanation: No explanation.


46) What is the use of Factorial Analysis?

  1. For setting the hypotheses
  2. To understand the difference between two variables
  3. To understand the relationship between two variables
  4. To understand the difference between various variables

Answer: b) To understand the difference between two variables

Explanation: Factor analysis can be understood as a statistical method that defines the variability between two variables in terms of factors, which are nothing but unobserved variables.


47) What is the best-suited name for a process that doesn't necessitate experimental research?

  1. Manipulation
  2. Controlling
  3. Content analysis
  4. Observation

Answer: a) Manipulation

Explanation: In an experimental research design, whenever the independent variables (i.e., treatment variables or factors) decisively get altered by researchers, then that process is termed as an experimental manipulation.


48) Which one among the following variables cannot be expressed in quantitative terms?

  1. Numerical Aptitude
  2. Marital Status
  3. Socio-economic Status
  4. Professional Attitude

Answer: d) Professional Attitude

Explanation: A professional attitude is an ability that inclines you to manage your time, portray a leadership quality, make you self-determined and persistent.


49) The "Sociogram" technique is used to study _________

  1. Vocational Interest
  2. Human Relations
  3. Professional Competence
  4. Achievement Motivation

Answer: b) Human Relations

Explanation: The term sociogram can be defined as a graphical representation of human relation that portrays the social links formed by one particular person.


50) Which one among the following phrases does not correspond to the meaning of research as a process?

  1. Problem Solving
  2. Trial and Error
  3. Objective Observation
  4. Systematic Activity

Answer: c) Objective Observation

Explanation: The research process comprises classifying, locating, evaluating, and investigating the data, which is required to support your research question, followed by developing and expressing your ideas.






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