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MySQL Aggregate Functions

MySQL's aggregate function is used to perform calculations on multiple values and return the result in a single value like the average of all values, the sum of all values, and maximum & minimum value among certain groups of values. We mostly use the aggregate functions with SELECT statements in the data query languages.

Syntax:

The following are the syntax to use aggregate functions in MySQL:

In the above syntax, we had used the following parameters:

  • First, we need to specify the name of the aggregate function.
  • Second, we use the DISTINCT modifier when we want to calculate the result based on distinct values or ALL modifiers when we calculate all values, including duplicates. The default is ALL.
  • Third, we need to specify the expression that involves columns and arithmetic operators.

There are various aggregate functions available in MySQL. Some of the most commonly used aggregate functions are summarised in the below table:

Aggregate Function Descriptions
count() It returns the number of rows, including rows with NULL values in a group.
sum() It returns the total summed values (Non-NULL) in a set.
average() It returns the average value of an expression.
min() It returns the minimum (lowest) value in a set.
max() It returns the maximum (highest) value in a set.
groutp_concat() It returns a concatenated string.
first() It returns the first value of an expression.
last() It returns the last value of an expression.

Why we use aggregate functions?

We mainly use the aggregate functions in databases, spreadsheets and many other data manipulation software packages. In the context of business, different organization levels need different information such as top levels managers interested in knowing whole figures and not the individual details. These functions produce the summarised data from our database. Thus they are extensively used in economics and finance to represent the economic health or stock and sector performance.

Let us take an example of myflix (video streaming website which has huge collections of the movie) database, where management may require the following details:

  • Most rented movies.
  • Least rented movies.
  • Average number that each movie is rented out in a month.

We can easily produce these details with the help of aggregate functions.

Let us discuss the most commonly used aggregate functions in detail. First, we will create a new table for the demonstration of all aggregate functions.

Execute the below statement to create an employee table:

Execute the below statement to insert the records into the employee table:

Now, execute the SELECT statement to show the record:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

Count() Function

MySQL count() function returns the total number of values in the expression. This function produces all rows or only some rows of the table based on a specified condition, and its return type is BIGINT. It returns zero if it does not find any matching rows. It can work with both numeric and non-numeric data types.

Example

Suppose we want to get the total number of employees in the employee table, we need to use the count() function as shown in the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that this table has six employees.

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

Sum() Function

The MySQL sum() function returns the total summed (non-NULL) value of an expression. It returns NULL if the result set does not have any rows. It works with numeric data type only.

Suppose we want to calculate the total number of working hours of all employees in the table, we need to use the sum() function as shown in the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see the total working hours of all employees in the table.

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

AVG() Function

MySQL AVG() function calculates the average of the values specified in the column. Similar to the SUM() function, it also works with numeric data type only.

Suppose we want to get the average working hours of all employees in the table, we need to use the AVG() function as shown in the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the average working hours of all employees in the organization:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

MIN() Function

MySQL MIN() function returns the minimum (lowest) value of the specified column. It also works with numeric data type only.

Suppose we want to get minimum working hours of an employee available in the table, we need to use the MIN() function as shown in the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the minimum working hours of an employee available in the table:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

MAX() Function

MySQL MAX() function returns the maximum (highest) value of the specified column. It also works with numeric data type only.

Suppose we want to get maximum working hours of an employee available in the table, we need to use the MAX() function as shown in the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the maximum working hours of an employee available in the table:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

FIRST() Function

This function returns the first value of the specified column. To get the first value of the column, we must have to use the LIMIT clause. It is because FIRST() function only supports in MS Access.

Suppose we want to get the first working date of an employee available in the table, we need to use the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the first working date of an employee available in the table:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

LAST() Function

This function returns the last value of the specified column. To get the last value of the column, we must have to use the ORDER BY and LIMIT clause. It is because the LAST() function only supports in MS Access.

Suppose we want to get the last working hour of an employee available in the table, we need to use the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the last working hour of an employee available in the table:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.

GROUP_CONCAT() Function

The GROUP_CONCAT() function returns the concatenated string from multiple rows into a single string. If the group contains at least one non-null value, it always returns a string value. Otherwise, we will get a null value.

Suppose we have another employee table as below:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

If we want to concatenate the designation of the same dept_id on the employee table, we need to use the following query:

Output:

After execution, we can see that the designation of the same dept_id concatenated successfully:

MySQL Aggregate Functions

To read more information, click here.


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