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Difference between MySQL and MongoDB

MySQL and MongoDB are the two most popular database used for the enterprise application. Although both databases are free and open-source, they also have a lot of differences. In this section, we are going to compare the differences between MySQL and MongoDB database system based on the various parameters.

What is MySQL?

MySQL is the popular database management system used for managing the relational database. It is open-source database software, which is supported by Oracle Company. It is fast, scalable, and easy to use database management system in comparison with Microsoft SQL Server and Oracle Database. It is commonly used with PHP scripts for creating powerful and dynamic server-side or web-based enterprise applications.

It is developed and supported by the Swedish Company, MySQL AB, and written in C and C++ programming languages. Many small and big companies use MySQL. MySQL supports many Operating Systems like Windows, Linux, MacOS, etc. with C, C++, and Java languages.

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is an open-source, cross-platform, and document-oriented NoSQL database that provides high performance, a high volume of data storage, rich query language, and automatic scaling. It is written in C++ and developed and maintained by a company named 10gen. It is simple, easy to use and learn by the developers. It stores data in JSON-like format. MongoDB is designed to work on the concept of collection and document.

MongoDB supports many Operating Systems like Windows, Linux, MacOS, etc. with C, C++, PHP, Node.js, Python, Java, and Ruby languages. The main purpose of using the MongoDB database is its fast development features, big-data support, flexible deployment, and easy to use.

Let us see the following comparison chart to understand the essential differences between MySQL and MongoDB.

MySQL vs MongoDB

MySQL and MongoDB

Comparison Basis MySQL MongoDB
Definition It is an open-source, cross-platform relational database management system built by Swedish Company MYSQL AB and currently supported by the Oracle. It is a popular open-source NoSQL database management system developed and owned by MongoDB Inc. that stores data in JSON-like format.
Release It was released on 23 May 1995. It was released on 11 February 2009.
Written in It is written in C and C++. It is written in C, C++, and Java.
Database Structure MySQL stores each individual records in tables and can access it by using the SQL queries. MongoDB stores each individual record in JSON-like documents that may vary in structures.
SQL or NoSQL MySQL uses Structured Query Language to process and access the database. We cannot change its schema. The inputs can only enter with a defined schema. SQL does not allow to work with unstructured and semi-structured data. MongoDB is a NoSQL database system. It means we can define and adhere to the predefined structure of the incoming data. NoSQL allows working with unstructured and semi-structured data, which is not possible in RDBMS. Its schema can be changed.
Queries Differences To select all records, it uses:
  • Select * from table_name;

To insert records:
  • INSERT INTO table_name(stud_id, branch, state) VALUES ('Joel01', 'MTech', 'Capetown')
To select all records, it uses:
  • db.customer.find();

To insert records:
  • db.table_name.insert({
    stud_id: 'Joel01',
    branch: 'MTech',
    state: 'Capetown'
Indexes Needed If the index is not found, the database engine searches an entire table for finding the rows. If the index is not found, the database engine searches each document, including collection, for selecting the exact match documents.
Features MySQL supports the following features:
  • It is secure.
  • It is scalable.
  • It follows the client-server architecture.
  • It provides High Performance
  • It allows transactions to be rolled back, commit, and crash recovery.
  • It is flexible.
  • It support schema structure.
  • Triggers
  • Unicode support
MongoDB supports the following features:
  • It supports ad hoc queries.
  • It provides duplication of data running over multiple servers.
  • It supports Master-Slave Replication.
  • It has automatic load balancing.
  • It does not have any schema.
  • It uses JavaScript instead of stored procedures.
  • It supports the JSON-like data model.
  • It supports rich query language.
The Flexibility of Schema Design Once the schema design is defined, it cannot be changed. Its schema design can be changed, which means it supports dynamic schema.
Architecture MySQL does not build on Distributed System Architecture. But, MySQL Cluster has distributed database architecture. MongoDB is Completely built on Distributed System Architecture.
Terminologies Differences It uses:
  • Table
  • Row
  • Columns
  • Joins
It uses:
  • Collection
  • Document
  • Field
  • Embedded Document, linking
Who uses? MySQL used by the following organization:
  • Pinterest
  • Twitter
  • YouTube
  • Netflix
  • Spotify
  • US Navy
  • NASA
  • Walmart
  • Paypal
MongoDB used by the following organization:
  • Klout
  • Citrix
  • Twitter
  • T-Mobile
  • Zendesk
  • Sony
  • Hootsuite
  • SurveyMonkey
  • MuleSoft
  • Foursquare
  • InVision
Scaling It scales in vertically It scales in Horizontally.
Latest Release Version MySQL 8.0.21 (February 2020) MongoDB 4.2 (February 2020)

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