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Function Oriented Design

Function Oriented design is a method to software design where the model is decomposed into a set of interacting units or modules where each unit or module has a clearly defined function. Thus, the system is designed from a functional viewpoint.

Design Notations

Design Notations are primarily meant to be used during the process of design and are used to represent design or design decisions. For a function-oriented design, the design can be represented graphically or mathematically by the following:

Function Oriented Design

Data Flow Diagram

Data-flow design is concerned with designing a series of functional transformations that convert system inputs into the required outputs. The design is described as data-flow diagrams. These diagrams show how data flows through a system and how the output is derived from the input through a series of functional transformations.

Data-flow diagrams are a useful and intuitive way of describing a system. They are generally understandable without specialized training, notably if control information is excluded. They show end-to-end processing. That is the flow of processing from when data enters the system to where it leaves the system can be traced.

Data-flow design is an integral part of several design methods, and most CASE tools support data-flow diagram creation. Different ways may use different icons to represent data-flow diagram entities, but their meanings are similar.

The notation which is used is based on the following symbols:

Function Oriented Design
Function Oriented Design

The report generator produces a report which describes all of the named entities in a data-flow diagram. The user inputs the name of the design represented by the diagram. The report generator then finds all the names used in the data-flow diagram. It looks up a data dictionary and retrieves information about each name. This is then collated into a report which is output by the system.

Data Dictionaries

A data dictionary lists all data elements appearing in the DFD model of a system. The data items listed contain all data flows and the contents of all data stores looking on the DFDs in the DFD model of a system.

A data dictionary lists the objective of all data items and the definition of all composite data elements in terms of their component data items. For example, a data dictionary entry may contain that the data grossPay consists of the parts regularPay and overtimePay.

                  grossPay = regularPay + overtimePay

For the smallest units of data elements, the data dictionary lists their name and their type.

A data dictionary plays a significant role in any software development process because of the following reasons:

  • A Data dictionary provides a standard language for all relevant information for use by engineers working in a project. A consistent vocabulary for data items is essential since, in large projects, different engineers of the project tend to use different terms to refer to the same data, which unnecessarily causes confusion.
  • The data dictionary provides the analyst with a means to determine the definition of various data structures in terms of their component elements.

Structured Charts

It partitions a system into block boxes. A Black box system that functionality is known to the user without the knowledge of internal design.

Function Oriented Design

Structured Chart is a graphical representation which shows:

  • System partitions into modules
  • Hierarchy of component modules
  • The relation between processing modules
  • Interaction between modules
  • Information passed between modules

The following notations are used in structured chart:

Function Oriented Design


Pseudo-code notations can be used in both the preliminary and detailed design phases. Using pseudo-code, the designer describes system characteristics using short, concise, English Language phases that are structured by keywords such as If-Then-Else, While-Do, and End.

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