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Project Management Tools

To manage the Project management system adequately and efficiently, we use Project management tools.

Here are some standard tools:

Gantt chart

Henry Gantt developed the Gantt Chart in 1917. Gantt chart is a handy tool when you want to see the whole landscape of either one or multiple projects. It helps you to view which functions are dependent on one another and which event is coming up.

Gantt charts are primarily used to allocate resources to activities. The funds allocated to activities include staff, hardware, and software. Gantt charts are useful for resource planning. A Gantt chart is a particular type of bar chart where each bar represents an activity. The bars are drawn along a timeline. The distance of each bar is proportional to the duration of time planned for the corresponding event. Gantt charts are used in software project management are an enlarged version of the regular Gantt charts. In the Gantt charts used for software project management, each bar subsists of a white part and a shaded section. The shaded part of the bar displays the length of time every task is estimated to take. The white part displays the slack time, that is, the current time by which a method must be completed. A Gantt chart representation for the MIS problem, as shown in fig:

Project Management Tools

PERT chart

PERT (Project Evaluation and Review Technique) charts contain a network of boxes and arrows. The boxes show activities, and the arrows represent function dependencies. PERT chart represents the numerical variations in the plan estimates assuming a normal distribution. Thus, in a PERT chart consist of making a single estimate for each function, pessimistic, likely, and optimistic size is made. The boxes of PERT charts are generally annotated with the pessimistic, likely, and optimistic estimates for each method. Since all possible completion times between the minimum and maximum period for each process has to be treated, there are not one but many critical ways, depending on the permutations of the estimates for each purpose. This makes the analytical path method in PERT charts very complicated. A critical way in a PERT chart is shown by utilizing thicker arrows. The PERT chart representation of the MIS problem as shown in fig. PERT charts are a more sophisticated method of activity chart. Inactivity diagrams only the estimated method durations are represented. Since the actual time might vary from the estimated time, the utility of the activity diagrams is finite.

Gantt chart representation of a project record is useful in planning the usage of resources, while PERT chart is useful for monitoring the proper progress of activities. Also, it is easier to identify parallel operations in a project utilizing a PERT chart. Project managers use to determine the parallel activities in a project for assignment to various engineers.

Project Management Tools

Advantage of PERT

It forces the manager to plan.

It shows the interrelationships among the tasks in the project and, in particular, clearly identifies the critical path of the project, thus helping to focus on it.

It exposes all possible parallelism in the activities and thus helps in allocating resources.

It allows scheduling and stimulation of alternative schedules.

It enables the manager to monitor and control the project.

Logic Network

The Logic Network shows the order of activities over time. It shows the sequence in which activities are to do. Distinguishing events and pinning down the project are the two primary uses. Moreover, it will help with understanding task dependencies, a timescale, and overall project workflow.

Product Breakdown Structure

Product Breakdown Structure (BBS) is a management tool and necessary a part of the project designing. It's a task-oriented system for subdividing a project into product parts. The product breakdown structure describes subtasks or work packages and represents the connection between work packages. Within the product breakdown Structure, the project work has diagrammatically pictured with various types of lists. The product breakdown structure is just like the work breakdown structure (WBS).

Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is used to decompose a given function set recursively into small activities. WBS provides a notation for representing the significant tasks that need to be carried out to solve a problem. The problem name labels the root of the tree. Each node of the tree is destroyed down into smaller activities that are building the children of the node. Each activity is recursively decomposed into smaller sub-activities until at the leaf level; the activities require approximately two weeks to develop, as shown in fig represents the WBS of MIS (Management Information System) software. While breaking down a function into smaller tasks, the manager has to make some hard decisions. If a task is broken down into a large number of minimal activities, these can be carried out independently. Thus, it becomes feasible to develop the product faster (with the help of additional workforce). Therefore, to be able to do a project in the least amount of time, the manager needs to break the vital function into smaller ones, expecting to find more parallelism. However, it is not useful to subdivide tasks into units which take less than a week or two to execute. Excellent subdivision measure that a disproportionate amount of time must be spent on preparing and revising various charts.

Project Management Tools

Resource Histogram

The resource histogram is precisely a bar chart that used for displaying the amounts of time that a resource is scheduled to be worked on over a prearranged and specific period. Resource histograms can also contain the related feature of resource availability, used for comparison on purposes of contrast.

Critical Path Analysis

Critical path analysis is a technique that is used to categorize the activities which are required to complete a task, as well as classifying the time which is needed to finish each activity and the relationships between the activities. It is also called a critical path method. CPA helps in predicting whether a project will expire on time. From the activity network representation following method can be made. The minimum time (MT) to complete the project is the maximum of all way from start to finish. The earliest start (ES) time of a method is the maximum of all paths from the start to the task. The current start time is the difference between MT and the maximum of all paths from this method to the finish. The earliest finish time (EF) of a function is the sum of the earliest start time of the function and the duration of the function. The latest finish (LF) time of a function can be obtained by subtracting maximum of all paths from this method to complete from MT. The slack time (ST) is LS - EF and equally can be indicated as LF - EF. The slack time (or float time) is the total time that a function may be delayed before it will affect the last time of the project. The slack time means the "flexibility" in the starting and completion of tasks. A critical method is one with a zero slack time. A path from the begin node to the last node containing only critical tasks is called a critical path. These parameters for various methods for the MIS problem are shown in the following table.

Task ES EF LS LF ST
Specification 0 15 0 15 0
Design database 15 60 15 60 0
Design GUI part 15 45 90 120 75
Code database 60 165 60 165 0
Code GUI part 45 90 120 165 75
Integrate and test 165 285 165 285 0
Write user manual 15 75 225 285 210

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