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Spiral Model

The Spiral Model, initially suggested by Bohem, is an evolutionary software process model that couples the iterative nature of prototyping with the controlled and systematic aspects of the linear sequential model. Using the Spiral model, the software is developed in order of incremental releases. It provides the potential for rapid development of incremental version of the software. A spiral model is divided into several framework activities also called task regions. Typically, there are between three & six task regions.

Customer communication- tasks required to establish effective communication between developer & customer.

Planning- Determination of objectives, alternatives, and constraints.

Risk Analysis- Analysis alternatives and attempts to identify and resolve the risks involved

Development- Product Development & Testing product

Assessment-Customer Evaluation

Each of the regions is populated by a set of work tasks called a task set, they are adapted to the characteristics of the project to be undertaken. For a small project, the number of work tasks and their formality is low. For a larger, more critical project, each task region contains more work tasks that are defined to achieve a higher level of formality.

Spiral Model

When to use Spiral Model?

  • When deliverance is required to be frequent.
  • When the project is large
  • When requirements are unclear and complex
  • When changes may require at any time
  • Large and high budget projects


  • High amount of risk analysis
  • Good for large and mission-critical projects.
  • Software is produced early in the software life cycle.


  • Can be a costly model to use.
  • Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise
  • Project's success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
  • Doesn't work well for smaller projects.

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