DM - District Magistrate
District Magistrate (DM) is the Indian Administrative Services (IAS) officer. He/she acts as the executive magistrate of the district. Hence, the administration of a district is the duty of a DM.
History of District Magistrate
The role of District Magistrate was introduced in India by the Britishers. The District Collector's office was introduced by Warren Hastings in 1772. Since then, he/she is responsible for the administration of the district. In the 1774 judicial plan, the District Magistrate was also named Diwan.
During British Rule, prime duties of the DM were:
Additionally, the main purpose of the office of the District Magistrate is to collect revenue and maintain peace by coordinating with local people. Some of the government officers had to report the District Magistrate about the activities of their department. These officers include Superintendent Police (SP), Division Forest Officer (DFO), etc.
Indians were eligible for the District Magistrate position by introducing an open Civil Services Examination; this was not until the late nineteenth century.
After the independence, the powers of the District Magistrate remained almost the same. The judicial powers were separated. The additional responsibilities were provided to the District Magistrate later in 1952. Afterward, the District Magistrates were responsible for the development of the districts through the implementation of various government programs. The district is still considered the administration unit in India.
Role and Power of District Magistrate
In India, the district is the central administration unit. The district magistrate is also known as the collector of the district. A DM has the responsibility to run the administration of the district. The decisions of the district magistrate directly touch and affect the lives of the people at every level. It is the prime responsibility of the district magistrate to implement the programs and run them efficiently with the help of people's support.
District Magistrate directly addresses the problems faced by the people. He/ she is responsible for finding solutions to their problems, usually done on a local level. It is how government directly interacts with the people to solve their problems.
The work of the District Magistrate is fieldwork. The district is believed to be the lowest level in governance. Hence head of the district is appointed as the district magistrate who acts as the direct agency. The maximum work area of the district magistrate is the district assigned to them.
How to become District Magistrate
The basic requirement for the position of DM is to write the UPSC exam and secure rank under the top 100. When a UPSC candidate becomes an IAS officer, it is after a promotion that he can become DM of the district. This promotion is generally offered after six years of joining, including two years of training.
It is necessary to secure a rank in first 100 for becoming an IAS officer in CSE. Another important qualification that a candidate must have is a graduation degree from any recognized university.
DM after 12th
The minimum qualification to write the UPSC examination is the graduation. So, the candidate must have a graduation degree. Therefore, after graduation, a candidate must write the UPSC exam and rank in the top 100. After completing around six years in the IAS office, a candidate is eligible for the DM post.
Overview of UPSC Exam
UPSC exam, also known as the Civil Services Exam, is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. The Civil Services Examination is conducted to appoint candidates for the civil services of the Government of India. It includes the recruitment for Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, and Indian Police Service. All candidates have to take 32 hours of examination, including the three stages, to complete this examination. The first stage is the preliminary examination, after which the main examination takes place, followed by an interview round or personality test.
Process of UPSC Examination
Eligibility to appear for the UPSC Examination
1. Nationality of the Candidate
2. Required Educational Qualifications
The candidate must have any one of the educational backgrounds stated below:
3. Age Criteria
A general category candidate must be of minimum 21 years of age and must be less than the maximum of 32 years of age till August 1 of the year of examination. For other categories, the age criteria are according to the caste reservations.
Importance and Classification of Role of the DM
The position of district magistrate is of great importance in the administration of the district. He/she is responsible for maintaining the coordination of the official agencies in any district. The position of the district magistrate is categorized into three prime heads.
The district magistrate must collect revenue from the district, as they are the collector.
Main Responsibilities of the DM
The District Magistrate is the Chief Protocol Officer. Some of the major responsibilities of this role are -
The District Magistrate also has the role of Chief Development Officer. The responsibilities concerning this role are -
During the elections, District Magistrate acts as the running officer, and the responsibilities with this role include -
Hence, the role of the District Magistrate is crucial. The work and responsibility of the DM have observed rise with the complexity of the government. However, the position is not as admired today as during British rule. Today, the dignity of the District Magistrate position is decreased, and they are no longer considered high-ranking Bureaucrats.
Duties of the DM
The DM is responsible for heavy tasks and is the Executive Magistrate. Within any district, DM is the head of all Magistrates. Another important fact is that District Magistrate Officer is the part of executive body not the judicial body. However, they are given judicial powers by the government as and when it is necessary.
Benefits of Becoming a District Magistrate
Dearness Allowance (DA) -
The salary of the District Magistrate is highly affected by the DA. It is revised on a half-yearly basis and also increases with inflation.
House Rent Allowance (HRA) -
The general house rent allowance is 18 to 24 percent of the general pay of an IAS officer. This allowance differs from city to city.
Medical Allowance -
DM is also given medical allowances, which can be reimbursed after treatment.
Travelling Allowance (TA) -
The DM enjoys the benefit of one or more vehicles. These vehicles are different depending upon the area. In rural areas, they are provided ambassador cars, whereas they are provided luxury cars in cities.
DMs are provided with bodyguards for them and their families.
Subsidized Bills -
DM get subsidized bills for electricity, water, gas, and phone. Sometimes these services are even free of cost.
Guest House for Vacations -
DM is provided a guest house for work-related or other vacations or trips.
DM is provided a pension after retirement along with the other benefits.