In this section, we are going to understand the test strategy documentation, which is an integral part of testing documentation.
And we also learn about features of test strategy, components of test strategy, types of test strategies, and different testing activities, which include the test strategy document.
What is Test Strategy?
A high-level document is used to validate the test types or levels to be executed for the product and specify the Software Development Life Cycle's testing approach is known as Test strategy document.
Once the test strategy has been written, we cannot modify it, and it is approved by the Project Manager, development team.
The test strategy also specifies the following details, which are necessary while we write the test document:
- What is the other procedure having to be used?
- Which module is going to be tested?
- Which entry and exit criteria apply?
- Which type of testing needs to be implemented?
In other words, we can say that it is a document, which expresses how we go about testing the product. And the approaches can be created with the help of following aspects:
- Automation or not
- Resource point of view
We can write the test strategy based on development design documents.
The development design document includes the following documents:
- System design documents: Primarily, we will use these documents to write the test strategy.
- Design documents: These documents are used to specify the software's functionality to be enabled in the upcoming release.
- Conceptual design documents: These are the document which we used Infrequently.
Note: A corresponding test strategy can create to test the new feature sets for each stage of development design.
The Objective of Test Strategy
The primary objective of writing the test strategy is to make sure that all purposes are covered entirely and understood by all stakeholders, we should systematically create a test strategy.
Furthermore, a test strategy objective is to support various quality assurance stockholders in respect of planning of resources, language, test and integration levels, traceability, roles and responsibilities, etc.
Features of Test Strategy Document
In SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle), the test strategy document plays an important role. It includes various significant aspects, such as who will implement the testing, what will be tested, how it will be succeeded, and what risks and incidents will be are related to it.
Some of the additional characteristics of the Test Strategy document are as follows:
- The test strategy document is approved and reviewed by the following's peoples:
- Test Team Lead
- Development Manager
- Quality Analyst Manager
- Product Manager
- For different testing activities, the test strategy document specifies the resources, scope, plan, methodology, etc.
- In order to direct how testing will be achieved, it is used by the project test team once it is ready or completed.
- Primarily, it is obtained from the BRS (Business Requirements Specifications) documents.
- The test strategy document is a high-level document, which generally remains constant, implying no frequent and pointless modification is made in the document.
- The respective team easily accomplishes the objectives of testing with the help of a test strategy document.
- The respective team easily accomplishes the objectives of testing with the help of test strategy document.
Components of Test Strategy Document
We understand that the test strategy document is made during the requirements phase and after the requirements have been listed.
Like other testing documents, the test strategy document also includes various components, such as:
- Scope and Overview
- Testing Methodology
- Testing Environment Specifications
- Testing Tools
- Release Control
- Risk Analysis
- Review and Approvals
Let's see them one by one for our better understanding:
1. Scope and Overview
- The first component of the test strategy document is Scope and Overview.
- The overview of any product contains the information on who should approve, review and use the document.
- The test strategy document also specified the testing activities and phases that are needed to be approved.
2. Testing Methodology
- The next module in the test strategy document is Testing methodology, which is mainly used to specify thelevels of testing, testing procedure, roles, and responsibilities of all the team members.
- The testing approach also contains the change management process involving the modification request submission, pattern to be used, and activity to manage the request.
- Above all, if the test strategy document is not established appropriately, then it might lead to errors or mistakesin the future.
3. Testing Environment Specifications
- Another component of the test strategy document is Testing Environment Specification.
- As we already aware of the specification of the test datarequirements is exceptionally significant. Hence, clear guidelines on how to prepare test data are involved in the testing environment specification of the test strategy document.
- This module specifies the information related to the number of environments and the setup demanded.
- The backup and restore strategies are also offered to ensure that there is no data loss because of the coding or programming issues.
4. Testing Tools
- Testing toolsare another vital component of the test strategy document, as it stipulates the complete information about the test management and automation tools necessary for test execution activity.;
- For security, performance, load testing, the necessary methodologies, and tools are defined by the details of the open-source or commercial tool and the number of users that can be kept by it.
5. Release Control
- Another important module of the test strategy document is Release Control.
- It is used to ensure that the correct and effective test executionand release management strategies should be systematically developed.
6. Risk Analysis
- The next component of the test strategy document is Risk Analysis.
- In the test strategy document, all the possible risks are described linked to the project, which can become a problem in test execution.
- Furthermore, for inclining these risks, a clear strategy is also formed in order to make sure that they are undertaking properly.
- We also create a contingency plan if the development team faces these risks in real-time.
7. Review and Approvals
- The last component of the Testing strategy document is Review and Approval.
- When all the related testing activities are specified in the test strategy document, it is reviewed by the concerned people like:
- System Administration Team
- Project Management Team
- Development Team
- Business Team
- Together with the correct date, approver name, comment, andsummary of the reviewed variations should be followed while starting the document.
- Likewise, it should be constantly reviewed and updated with the testing process improvements.
Types of Test Strategies
Here, we are discussing some of the significant types of test strategies document:
- Methodical strategy
- Reactive strategy
- Analytical strategy
- Standards compliant or Process compliant strategy
- Model-based strategy
- Regression averse strategy
- Consultative strategy
Let's understand them one by one in detail:
1. Methodical Strategy
- The first part of test strategy document is Methodical strategy.
- In this, the test teams follow a set of test conditions, pre-defined quality standard(like ISO25000), checklists.
- The Standard checklists is occurred for precise types of testing, such as security testing.
2. Reactive Strategy
- The next type of test strategy is known as Reactive strategy.
- In this, we can design the test and execute them only after the real software is delivered, Therefore, the testing is based upon the identified defectsin the existing system.
- Suppose, we have used the exploratory testing, and the test approvals are established derived from the existing aspects and performances.
- These test approvals are restructured based on the outcome of the testing which is implemented by the test engineer.
3. Analytical strategy
- Another type of test strategy is Analytical strategy, which is used to perform testing based on requirements, and requirements are analyzed to derive the test conditions. And then tests are designed, implemented, and performedto encounter those requirements. For example, risk-based testing or requirements-based testing.
- Even the outcomes are recorded in terms of requirements, such as requirements tested and passed.
4. Standards compliant or Process compliant strategy
- In this type of test strategy, the test engineer will follow the procedures or guidelines created by a panel of industry specialists or committee standards to find test conditions, describe test cases, and put the testing team in place.
- Suppose any project follows the ScrumAgile technique. In that case, the test engineer will generate its complete test strategy, beginning from classifying test criteria, essential test cases, performing tests, report status, etc., around each user story.
- Some good examplesof the standards-compliant process are Medical systems following US FDA (Food and Drugs Administration) standards.
5. Model-based strategy
- The next type of test strategy is a model-based strategy. The testing team selects the current or expected situationand produces a model for it with the following aspects: inputs, outputs, processes, and possible behavior.
- And the models are also established based on the current data speeds, software, hardware, infrastructure, etc.
6. Regression averse strategy
- In the regression averse strategy, the test engineer mainly emphasizes decreasing regression risks for functional or non-functional product shares.
- For example, suppose we have one web application to test the regressionissues for the particular application. The testing team can develop the test automation for both typical and exceptional use cases for this scenario.
- And to facilitate the tests can be run whenever the application is reformed, the testing team can use GUI-based automation tools.
7. Consultative strategy
- The consultative strategy is used to consultkey investors as input to choose the scope of test conditions as in user-directed testing.
- In order of priority, the client will provide a list of browsers and their versions, operating systems, a list of connection types, anti-malware software, and also the contradictory list, which they want to test the application.
- As per the need of the items given in provided lists, the test engineer may use the various testing techniques, such as equivalence partitioning
We can combine the two or more strategies as per the needs of the product and organization's requirements. And it is not necessary to use any one of the above listed test strategies for any testing project.
Test strategy selection
The selection of the test strategy may depend on the below aspects:
- The selection of test strategy depends on the Organization type and size.
- We can select the test strategy based on the Project requirements, such as safety and security related applications require rigorous strategy.
- We can select the test strategy based on the Product development model.
What kind of details may include in the test strategy document?
The final document of the test strategy contains important details about the following factors:
- Scope and Overview
- Re-usability of both software and testing work products.
- Details of different Test levels, relationships between the test levels, and procedure to integrate different test levels.
- Testing environment
- Testing techniques
- Level of automation for testing
- Different testing tools
- Risk Analysis
- For each test level Entry as well exit conditions
- Test results reports
- Degree of independence of each test
- Metrics and measurements to be evaluated during testing
- Confirmation and regression testing
- Managing defects detected
- Managing test tools and infrastructure configuration
- Roles and responsibilities of Test team members
After understanding the test strategy document, at last, we can say that the test strategy document provides a vibrant vision of what the test team will do for the whole project.
The test strategy document could prepare only those who have good experience in the product domain because the test strategy document will drive the entire team.
And it cannot be modified or changed in the complete project life cycle as it is a static document.
Before any testing activities begin, the Test strategy document can distribute to the entire testing team.
If the test strategy document is written correctly, it will develop a high-quality system and expand the complete testing process.