Manual testing is a software testing process in which test cases are executed manually without using any automated tool. All test cases executed by the tester manually according to the end user's perspective. It ensures whether the application is working, as mentioned in the requirement document or not. Test cases are planned and implemented to complete almost 100 percent of the software application. Test case reports are also generated manually.
Manual Testing is one of the most fundamental testing processes as it can find both visible and hidden defects of the software. The difference between expected output and output, given by the software, is defined as a defect. The developer fixed the defects and handed it to the tester for retesting.
Manual testing is mandatory for every newly developed software before automated testing. This testing requires great efforts and time, but it gives the surety of bug-free software. Manual Testing requires knowledge of manual testing techniques but not of any automated testing tool.
Manual testing is essential because one of the software testing fundamentals is "100% automation is not possible."
Why we need manual testing
Whenever an application comes into the market, and it is unstable or having a bug or issues or creating a problem while end-users are using it.
If we don't want to face these kinds of problems, we need to perform one round of testing to make the application bug free and stable and deliver a quality product to the client, because if the application is bug free, the end-user will use the application more conveniently.
If the test engineer does manual testing, he/she can test the application as an end-user perspective and get more familiar with the product, which helps them to write the correct test cases of the application and give the quick feedback of the application.
Types of Manual Testing
There are various methods used for manual testing. Each technique is used according to its testing criteria. Types of manual testing are given below:
The white box testing is done by Developer, where they check every line of a code before giving it to the Test Engineer. Since the code is visible for the Developer during the testing, that's why it is also known as White box testing.
For more information about white box testing, refers to the below link:
Black box testing
The black box testing is done by the Test Engineer, where they can check the functionality of an application or the software according to the customer /client's needs. In this, the code is not visible while performing the testing; that's why it is known as black-box testing.
For more information about black-box testing, refers to the below link:
Gray Box testing
Gray box testing is a combination of white box and Black box testing. It can be performed by a person who knew both coding and testing. And if the single person performs white box, as well as black-box testing for the application, is known as Gray box testing.
To get more details about gray box testing, refers to the below link:
How to perform Manual Testing
Software Build Process
The main job of the build team is to create the application or the Build and converting the high-level language into low-level language.
It is software, which is used to convert the code into application format. And it consists of some set of features and bug fixes that are handed over to the test engineer for testing purposes until it becomes stable.
Control version tool
It is a software or application, which is used for the following purpose:
Example of Build process
Let see one example to understand how to build process work on the real scenarios:
As soon as the test engineer gets the bug, they will send it to the developers, and they need some time to analyze; after that, he/she only fixes the bug (Test engineer can't give the collection of bug).
The developer is decided how many bugs he can fix according to their time. And the test engineer is decided, which bug should be fixed first according to their needs because the test engineers cannot afford to stop testing.
And the test engineer getting the mail, they can only know that which bug is fixed by the list of the bug fixes.
The time will increase because at the first Build, and developers should write the code in the different features. And at the end, he/she can only do the bug fixes and the numbers of days will be decreased.
The test cycle is the time duration given to the test engineer to test every Build.
Differences between the two build
The bugs found in one build and can be fixed any of the future Build, which depends on the test engineer's requirement. Each new Build is the modified version of the old one, and these modifications could be the bug fixes or adding some new features.
How frequently we were getting the new Build
In the beginning, we used to get weekly builds, but in the latest stage of testing, when the application was getting stable, we used to get the new Build once in 3 days, two days, or a daily basis as well.
How many builds we get
If we consider one year of any project duration, we got 22-26 builds.
When we get the bug fixes
Generally, we understand the bug fixes only after the test cycle is completed, or the collection of bugs is fixed in one build, and handover in the next builds.
Advantages of Manual Testing
Disadvantages of Manual Testing
Manual testing tools
In manual testing, different types of testing like unit, integration, security, performance, and bug tracking, we have various tools such as Jira, Bugzilla, Mantis, Zap, NUnit, Tessy, LoadRunner, Citrus, SonarQube, etc. available in the market. Some of the tools are open-source, and some are commercial.
For more information about testing tools, refers to the below link: