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Manual Testing

Manual testing is a software testing process in which test cases are executed manually without using any automated tool. All test cases executed by the tester manually according to the end user's perspective. It ensures whether the application is working as mentioned in the requirement document or not. Test cases are planned and implemented to complete almost 100 percent of the software application. Test case reports are also generated manually.

Manual Testing is one of the most fundamental testing processes as it can find both visible and hidden defects of the software. The difference between expected output and output, given by the software is defined as a defect. The developer fixed the defects and handed it to the tester for retesting.

Manual testing is mandatory for every newly developed software before automated testing. This testing requires great efforts and time, but it gives the surety of bug-free software. Manual Testing requires knowledge of manual testing techniques but not of any automated testing tool.

Manual testing is essential because one of the software testing fundamentals is "100% automation is not possible."

There are various methods used for manual testing. Each method is used according to its testing criteria. Types of manual testing are given below:

Types of Manual Testing:

  1. Black Box Testing
  2. White Box Testing
  3. Unit Testing
  4. System Testing
  5. Integration Testing
  6. Acceptance Testing
Manual Testing

How to perform Manual Testing

  • First, tester examines all documents related to software, to select testing areas.
  • Tester analyses requirement document to cover all requirements stated by the customer.
  • Tester develops the test cases according to the requirement document.
  • All test cases are executed manually by using Black box testing and white box testing.
  • If bugs occurred then the testing team informs to the development team.
  • Development team fixes bugs and handed software to the testing team for retesting.

Advantages of Manual Testing

  • It does not require programming knowledge while using the Black box method.
  • It is used to test dynamically changing GUI designs.
  • Tester interacts with software as a real user so that they are able to discover usability and user interface issues.
  • It ensures that the software is a hundred percent bug-free.
  • It is cost effective.
  • Easy to learn for new testers.

Disadvantages of Manual Testing

  • It requires a large number of human resources.
  • It is very time-consuming.
  • Tester develops test cases based on their skills and experience. There is no evidence that they have covered all functions or not.
  • Test cases cannot be used again. Need to develop separate test cases for each new software.
  • It does not provide testing on all aspects of testing.
  • Since two teams work together, sometimes it is difficult to understand each other's motives, it can mislead the process.

Manual testing tools


Selenium is used to test the Web Application.


Appium is used to test the mobile application.


TestLink is used for test management.


Postman is used for API testing.


Firebug is an online debugger.


JMeter is used for load testing of any application.


Mantis is used for bug tracking.

Next TopicAutomation Testing

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