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SQL CONCAT Function

The CONCAT function in SQL is a String function, which is used to merge two or more strings. The Concat service converts the Null values to an Empty string when we display the result. This function is used to concatenate two strings to make a single string. The operator is used to link character strings and column string.

We can use a literal in CONCAT Function. A literal is a number, character, or date that includes the SELECT statement.

Syntax of CONCAT function:

Example-


CONCAT(' FIRST','SECOND') FIRST SECOND

To understand the CONCAT function in detail, consider an employee_tbl table, which has the following records -


ID NAME WORK_DATE DAILY_TYPING_PAGES
1 Michal 2009-02-15 270
2 Zeena 2003-03-24 250
2 kachner 2007-08-19 277
2 warner 2007-04-25 264
3 Joy 2007-05-17 250
4 atire 2006-06-23 270
5 delph 2004-05-28 230

So if we want to concatenate all the names, employee IDs, and work_ date of above table, then we can do it using the following command -

1Michal2009-02-15
2Zeena2003-03-24
2kachner2007-08-19
2warner2007-04-25
3joy2007-05-17
4atire2006-06-23
5delph2004-05-28

Example 2:

Output:

id last_name first_name first_name||last_name salary first_name||salary
1 bean Mr. Mr.bean 10000 Mr.10000
2 William Sunita Sunita William 50000 Sunita50000
3 tpoint Java Javatpoint 20000 Java20000
4 &example tutorial tutorial&example 90000 Tutorial90000

Note: In above example, we have used "||", which is known as the Concatenation operator, and it is used to link two or more columns in select query. This operator is independent of the data type of column.
Here, we have linkined 2 columns i.e, first_name+last_name as well as first_name+salary.

We can use string literals in CONCAT operator.

Example 1: Using the character literal

Syntax

Output: (Concatenating three values and giving a new 'name')

id first_name last_name salary new
1 Javatpoint tpoint 20000 Java has salary 20000
2 tutorial &example 30000 the tutorial has salary 30000
3 Shane Watson 40000 Shane has salary 40000
4 Jennifer louse 60000 Jennifer has salary 60000

Note: We have used salary as a character literal in the select statement. We can use the date literal and number literal according to our requirement in the table.

Example 2: Using character as well as the number literal

Syntax:

Output:

id first_name last_name salary new
1 Javatpoint tpoint 20000 Java100 has id 1
2 tutorial &example 30000 Tutorial100 has id 2
3 Shane Watson 40000 Shane100 has id 3
4 Jennifer louse 60000 Jennifer100 has id 4

In the above example, we have used the salary as a character literal as well as 100 as number authentic in our select statement.


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