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Functional Dependency

The functional dependency is a relationship that exists between two attributes. It typically exists between the primary key and non-key attribute within a table.

The left side of FD is known as a determinant, the right side of the production is known as a dependent.

For example:

Assume we have an employee table with attributes: Emp_Id, Emp_Name, Emp_Address.

Here Emp_Id attribute can uniquely identify the Emp_Name attribute of employee table because if we know the Emp_Id, we can tell that employee name associated with it.

Functional dependency can be written as:

We can say that Emp_Name is functionally dependent on Emp_Id.

Types of Functional dependency

DBMS Functional Dependency

1. Trivial functional dependency

  • A → B has trivial functional dependency if B is a subset of A.
  • The following dependencies are also trivial like: A → A, B → B


2. Non-trivial functional dependency

  • A → B has a non-trivial functional dependency if B is not a subset of A.
  • When A intersection B is NULL, then A → B is called as complete non-trivial.


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