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Data Management Issues in Mobile Database

Overview about Mobile Database

A mobile database is a database that can be accessed by a mobile network and connected to a mobile computing device (or wireless network). Here, there is a wireless connection between the client and the server. In the modern world, mobile computing is expanding quickly and has enormous promise for the database industry. It will work with a variety of various devices, including mobile databases powered by iOS and Android, among others. Couchbase Lite, Object Box, and other popular databases are examples of databases.

The following are some of the characteristics of the mobile database that will be covered in this article.

  • To prevent frequent and transactions from being lost due to connection loss, a cache is kept.
  • As more people utilize laptops, smart phones, and PDAs to live on the go.
  • Mobile databases and the main database server are physically independent.
  • Mobile gadgets housed mobile databases.
  • Mobile databases can communicate with other mobile clients or a central database server from distant locations.
  • Due to unreliable or nonexistent connections, mobile users must be able to function without a wireless connection with the aid of a mobile database (disconnected).
  • Data on mobile devices is analyzed and managed using a mobile database.

Three parties are normally involved in Mobile Database

  1. Fixed Hosts: It uses database servers to carry out the transactions and data management tasks.
  2. Mobile Units: These are portable computers that can move within a space, including the cellular network they utilize to connect to base stations.
  3. Base Stations: These are two-way radios installed in fixed places that transmit and receive communication from and to the mobile units.


In this section, we'll talk about how mobile databases have certain restrictions.

  • Its wireless bandwidth is restricted.
  • Speed of wireless communication in the mobile database.
  • Access requires an unlimited supply of battery power.
  • Less security exists.
  • Theft-proofing is challenging to do.

Data Management

Incorporating, storing, organizing, and preserving the data generated and gathered by an organization is known as data management. A key component of implementing IT systems that power business applications and deliver analytical data to support operational decision-making and strategic planning by corporate executives, business managers, and other end users is effective data management.

The goal of the data management process, which combines a number of distinct tasks, is to guarantee that the data stored in business systems is reliable, accessible, and current. Business users often take part in various steps of the process to ensure that the data fulfils their needs and to bring them on board with the regulations controlling its usage, but IT and data management teams handle the majority of the needed work.

This in-depth explanation of data management contains information on its several disciplines, best practices for managing data, problems that firms must overcome, and the financial advantages of an effective data management strategy. An introduction of data management methods and technologies is also provided.

Importance of Data Management

Data is increasingly viewed as a corporate asset that can be leveraged to improve marketing initiatives, business operations, and cost-saving measures, all with the aim of boosting revenue and profits. However, poor data management may cause businesses to struggle with incompatible data silos, inconsistent data sets, and data quality issues, which can make it difficult for them to run business intelligence (BI) and analytics applications or, worse, provide inaccurate results.

Data management has become more crucial as organizations are required to comply with more regulations, especially those relating to data privacy and protection legislation like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA). Additionally, businesses are collecting greater and larger amounts of data in a wider range of data kinds, two characteristics of the big data platforms that many have implemented. Such settings may become cumbersome and challenging to traverse without effective data management.

Various data handling tasks

  • Data processing, storage, and governance of how data is formatted and utilized in operational and analytical systems are all covered by the several disciplines that make up the entire data management process. The first stage is frequently creating data architecture, especially in large businesses with a lot of data to handle. An outline for managing data and installing databases and other data platforms, including particular technologies to suit different applications, is provided by data architecture.
  • The most popular platform for storing company data is a database. They include a set of organized data that can be accessed, changed, and controlled. They are utilized in data warehouses, which hold aggregated data sets from business systems for BI and analytics, as well as transaction processing systems, which generate operational data like customer records and sales orders.
  • As a result, database administration is a crucial aspect of data management. After databases are set up, performance monitoring and tweaking must be done to ensure acceptable response times on database queries that users execute to access the data stored in them. Database design, setup, installation, and updates, data security, database backup and recovery, and the use of software upgrades and security patches are additional administrative activities.
Data Management Issues in Mobile Database

A database management system (DBMS), a piece of software that serves as an interface between the databases it manages and the database administrators (DBAs), end users, and applications that use them, is the main piece of technology used to deploy and maintain databases. File systems and cloud object storage services are two alternatives to databases that store data in a less organized manner and provide greater flexibility in terms of the sorts of data that may be stored and how the data is displayed. They don't work well for transactional applications as a result, though.

The following are some more core data management disciplines:

  • Data modeling: This depicts how data flows across systems and the connections between data items. A data model is a conceptual illustration used to convey and articulate business needs. It graphically depicts the data's characteristics, the business rules that govern them, and the database's intended organization of the data. The process of building a house may be paralleled to the process of data modeling. Let's say that business ABC needs to construct a guest home (data base). It makes a call to a building architect (a data modeler) and outlines its construction needs (business requirements). The plan (data model) is created by the building architect (data modeler) and given to firm ABC. When it comes time to build the guest home, firm ABC finally hires civil engineers (DBAs and database developers) (database)
  • Data fusion: the process of combining data from several sources for operational and analytical purposes. Data fusion is the act of combining data from several sources to create more complex models and gain a deeper understanding of a project. Getting integrated data on a particular topic and integrating it for a central analysis is what it often signifies. Data fusion is a term that refers to a wide range of technologies. For example, in a research project, scientists might use data fusion to combine environmental data with physical tracking data, or marketers might use it in a customer dashboard to combine client identifier information with purchase history and other information gathered at brick-and-mortar store locations to create a more accurate profile.
  • Data governance: This establishes guidelines and practices to guarantee that data is uniformly used across a company. In order to ensure the effective and efficient use of information in assisting an organization to achieve its objectives, data governance is a set of procedures, roles, rules, standards, and measurements. It defines the procedures and roles necessary to guarantee the accuracy and safety of the data utilized within a company or organization. Data governance establishes who may act upon what information, under what circumstances, and with what tools. Any firm working with big data needs a solid data governance plan, which will outline the advantages of uniform, shared processes and responsibilities for your company. Business drivers emphasize which data in your data governance plan needs to be carefully handled as well as the expected outcomes of this effort.
  • Master data management (MDM): This produces a consistent collection of reference data on topics like customers and goods, and data quality management, which tries to correct data mistakes and inconsistencies. MDM is a business and IT collaborative discipline that uses technology to guarantee the consistency, correctness, stewardship, semantic consistency, and accountability of the enterprise's official shared master data assets. Customers, prospects, citizens, suppliers, locations, hierarchies, and chart of accounts are among the basic business entities that are described by master data, which is a consistent and uniform collection of IDs and extended characteristics.

Data management Tools and Techniques

In the course of managing data, a variety of technologies, tools, and approaches can be used. For various elements of handling data, there are the following alternatives.

Database Management System: The relational database management system is the type of DBMS that is most often used. Tables with rows and columns that hold database entries are how relational databases arrange data. Through the use of primary and foreign keys, related records in separate tables may be linked together without the need for duplicate data entry. Relational databases are composed of a strict data model that works well with structured transaction data and the SQL programming language. They are the best database option for transaction processing applications because to this plus their support for the ACID transaction attributes of atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.

For certain sorts of data demands, several DBMS technology types have emerged as viable alternatives. The majority fall under the category of NoSQL databases, which don't have strict rules for data models and database schemas. They may therefore store semi-structured and unstructured data, including sensor data, internet click stream records, and network, server, and application logs.

Big Data Management: Big data deployments frequently employ NoSQL databases because of their capacity to store and manage a wide range of data types. Open source technologies like Hadoop, a distributed processing framework with a file system that runs across clusters of commodity servers, its associated HBase database, the Spark processing engine, and the Kafka, Flink, and Storm stream processing platforms are also frequently used to build big data environments. Big data systems are being implemented in the cloud more often, employing object storage like Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3).

Data Lakes and Data Warehouses: Data warehouses and data lakes are the two most often utilized repositories for handling analytics data. The more conventional approach is a data warehouse, which generally relies on a relational or columnar database and holds structured data that has been gathered from various operational systems and prepared for analysis. Business analysts and executives may monitor sales, inventory management, and other key performance indicators (KPIs) via BI querying and enterprise reporting, which are the main use cases for data warehouses.

The data in an enterprise data warehouse comes from many business systems within the company. Large corporations often allow autonomously managed subsidiaries and business divisions to create their own data warehouses. Another warehousing choice is data marts; these are scaled-down versions of data warehouses that host sections of an organization's data for particular departments or user groups. In one deployment strategy, various data marts are produced first and then used to populate an existing data warehouse. In the other strategy, data marts are built first and then used to build a data warehouse.

On the other side, data lakes hold collections of huge data for use in sophisticated analytics applications such as predictive modeling and machine learning. Initially, Hadoop clusters were used to build those most frequently, but data lake deployments are increasingly using S3 and other cloud object storage services. They can occasionally be installed on NoSQL databases, and a distributed data lake system can incorporate several platforms. Although the data may be altered for analysis after it is imported, a data lake frequently contains unaltered raw data. When this occurs, data scientists and other analysts generally prepare their own data for particular analytical purposes.

The data lake house has also become a third platform choice for storing and analyzing analytical data. It combines, as its name suggests, aspects of data lakes and data warehouses, combining the adaptable data storage, scalability, and reduced cost of a data lake with the querying capabilities and more stringent data management structure of a data warehouse.

The data lakehouse has also become a third platform choice for storing and analysing analytical data. It combines, as its name suggests, aspects of data lakes and data warehouses, combining the adaptable data storage, scalability, and reduced cost of a data lake with the querying capabilities and more stringent data management structure of a data warehouse.

Integration of data: ETL, or extract, transform, and load, is the most popular method for integrating data. It involves obtaining data from source systems, transforming it into a uniform format, and then loading the combined data into a data warehouse or other target system. Data integration systems, however, now enable a wide range of additional integration techniques.

This includes extract, load, and transform (ELT), a version of ETL that loads data into the destination platform without further processing. In data lakes and other large data systems, ELT is frequently used for data integration.

Batch integration procedures such as ETL and ELT are carried out at predetermined times. Using techniques like change data capture, which applies updates to database data to a data warehouse or other repository, and streaming data integration, which continuously combines streams of real-time data, data management teams may also do real-time data integration. Another integration choice is data virtualization, which employs an abstraction layer to provide consumers a virtual view of data from many systems rather than a real one.

Data Modeling: Data modelers develop a number of conceptual, logical, and physical data models that visually represent data sets and workflows and link them to business needs for transaction processing and analytics. Entity relationship diagrams, data mappings, and schemas in a variety of model types are common strategies for representing data. When new data sources are introduced or when an organization's information demands change, data models frequently need to be changed.

MDM, data governance, and data quality: Software packages that can assist in managing data governance programs are available, but they are an optional component. Data governance is largely an organizational activity. While governance programs may be run by data management experts, they often have a data governance council made up of company leaders who decide on corporate standards for data creation, presentation, and use as a whole.

Data stewardship, which entails managing data sets and guaranteeing that end users adhere to agreed data regulations, is another essential component of governance projects. Depending on the scale of a business and the extent of its governance program, a data steward role may be full- or part-time. Data stewards can also come from the IT department or the business operations division; in any case, a thorough understanding of the data they manage is typically a need.

Data governance and initiatives to enhance data quality are closely related. Effective data governance places a strong priority on maintaining high data quality standards, and measurements that show increases in the data quality of an organisation are essential for proving the economic benefit of governance initiatives. The following are important data quality procedures that are supported by different software tools:

  • Data profiling: also known as data scrubbing.
  • Analyses data sets to spot outlier values that may represent mistakes
  • Data validation: This compares data to predetermined quality standards
  • Data cleansing: This eliminates data faults by altering or eliminating faulty data.

Despite MDM's less widespread use than theirs, data governance and data quality management are likewise related to it. That's in part because MDM solutions are only really suitable for large enterprises owing to their complexity. For certain data domains, MDM establishes a central register of master data, or "golden record." An MDM hub stores the master data and distributes it to analytical systems for standardized corporate reporting and analysis. The hub may also push revised master data back to the original systems if needed.

Data Observability: is a new approach that may support data governance and quality initiatives by giving a more comprehensive view of the state of the data in an organization. Data observability, which is adapted from observability techniques in IT systems, monitors data pipelines and data sets to spot problems that need to be fixed. Tools for data observability may be used to organize and prioritize problem-solving activity as well as automate monitoring, alerting, and root cause investigation processes.

Top data management techniques

These are some recommended practices to assist an organization's data management process stay on course.

Make data quality and data governance your key priority: Effective data management strategies must incorporate a solid data governance program, especially in companies with distributed data environments made up of a variety of technologies. The importance of data quality must also be emphasized. The IT and data management teams, however, cannot handle either situation on their own. To ensure that their data demands are addressed and that problems with data quality are not sustained, business leaders and users must be involved. Projects involving data modeling are no different.

When using data management systems use caution: When creating architecture and assessing and choosing technologies, it's important to take caution because there are so many databases and other data platforms to choose from. The data management solutions that IT and data managers build must be suitable for the intended use and supply the data processing capabilities and analytics data needed by an organization's business operations.

Make sure you can accommodate user and corporate demands in the present and the future. Data environments are dynamic; new data sources are constantly added, old data sets are updated and business demands for data change. Data management needs to be flexible in order to keep up with shifting demands. For instance, to make sure that all necessary data is continuously included in data pipelines, data teams must collaborate closely with end users while creating and upgrading data pipelines. A DataOps methodology, which combines DevOps, Agile software development, and lean manufacturing approaches, may be of assistance. It is a collaborative strategy for creating data systems and pipelines. For the purposes of automating workflows, enhancing communication, and accelerating data delivery, DataOps brings data managers and users together.

Issues of Data Management in Mobile Database

One of the key problems with mobile information systems is the availability of data management technologies that can facilitate simple data access from and to mobile devices. Distributed computing may be thought to take on a mobile form. The following are the two distribution possibilities for mobile databases: The whole database is spread among the connected components, with full or partial replication possible. In order to fulfill the demands of mobile settings, a base station or fixed host controls its own database with DBMS-like capability, along with extra capabilities for identifying mobile units and additional query and transaction management functions.

The database is dispersed throughout the wired and wireless parts. The task of managing the data is divided between the mobile devices and base stations, or stationary hosts.

The following are some of the problems that might occur when managing data for mobile databases:

Mobile database architecture

The global name resolution issue is exacerbated by the frequent shutdowns and the need to handle queries.


When compared to mobile data, data left in a fixed location is safer. Mobile data is therefore less secure. Techniques must be able to make up for data loss as data are getting more volatile. The most crucial requirements in this setting are adequate procedures and permitting access to crucial data.

Data replication and distribution

Here, data replication and distribution among mobile devices and base stations take occur unevenly. In data distribution and replication, there is greater data availability and less expensive distant access. Consistency restrictions make managing caches more difficult. The Caches give the mobile devices access to the most recent and frequently used data. Their own transactions are processed. High security and most effective data access are both offered.

Issues with replication

As there are more replicas, the cost of updates and signaling has increased. Anywhere and at any moment, mobile hosts can move.

Division of labor

Because of several aspects of the mobile environment, there is a certain modification in the division of labor in query processing. In some circumstances, the client must operate independently of the server.

Transaction models

Issues with transaction accuracy and fault tolerance are exacerbated in a mobile context. The ACID properties-atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability-must all be met by transactions.

A mobile transaction is carried out sequentially according to the movement of the mobile unit, sometimes across numerous data sets and across different base stations. It becomes difficult to enforce ACID characteristics when the mobile computers are unconnected. There is an anticipation that a mobile transaction would last a long time because of disconnect in mobile units.

Recovery and fault tolerance

A system's capacity to function successfully even in the presence of internal flaws is referred to as fault tolerance. There are two categories of faults: transitory and permanent. A temporary defect will gradually disappear without any visible intervention, while a permanent flaw will persist unless it is fixed by an outside agent.

The mobile database environment must handle failures in communication, media, transactions, and sites. There is a site failure at MU as a result of low battery power. It is not appropriate to consider a voluntary shutdown in MU to be a failure. The majority of the time when Mu crosses cells, a transaction will fail at handoff. The characterization of mobile computing is as follows:

  • Limiting the availability of resources
  • Recurring disconnects
  • Extreme mobility
  • Limited bandwidth

Location-based services

One of the most difficult jobs that must be completed in order to allow a location-based service is figuring out the whereabouts of mobile users. Cache information turns into a sale when clients relocate. Techniques for eviction are crucial in this situation. Issues with location and services include:

  • Different mobile mapping standards and user privacy
  • Market potential
  • Interoperability

An issue arises when location-dependent queries are updated and then spatial queries are used to update the cache.

Processing queries

Query optimization becomes the most challenging due to the mobility and quick resource changes of mobile units. When mobility is taken into account, query processing is impacted. A query answer must be sent to mobile units that could be travelling. In centralized systems, input/output costs are the ones that have the most impacts.

The most significant factor in dispersed contexts is communication cost. There are ways to create location-based queries. Because the mobile host may be positioned in many places, it is challenging to estimate the communication costs in dispersed contexts. Dynamic optimization techniques are necessary in the mobile dispersed scenario.

Threats and difficulties in data management

Growing data quantities make data management more difficult, especially when there is a mix of structured, semi structured, and unstructured data. A company may also have isolated systems that are challenging to connect and administer in a coordinated manner if its data architecture is poorly planned. Because of this, it is more difficult to guarantee that data sets are reliable and consistent across all data platforms. Many data management teams are developing data catalogues that describe what is available in systems and often comprise business dictionaries, metadata-driven data dictionaries, and data lineage records in order to help make data more accessible.

Enabling data scientists and other analysts to identify and access pertinent data may be difficult even in organizations with superior planning, especially when the data is dispersed across several databases and big data platforms.

While the rapid move to the cloud can make certain areas of data management job easier, it also brings with it new difficulties. For enterprises that need to shift data and processing workloads from current on-premises systems, transitioning to cloud databases can be challenging. The cost of using cloud systems and managed services must be continuously controlled to ensure that data processing expenses do not go over budget. Costs are another significant concern with the cloud.

The responsibility for maintaining corporate data security and reducing potential legal liability for data breaches or abuse increasingly falls on many data management teams. Data managers must assist in ensuring adherence to industry and governmental rules around data security, privacy, and usage.

With the passing of the CCPA, this was signed into law in 2018, and the GDPR, the European Union's data privacy regulation, which went into force at the beginning of 2020, that issue has grown more urgent. The California Privacy Rights Act, which was adopted by state voters in November 2020 and went into effect on January 1, 2023, subsequently enhanced the CCPA's restrictions.

Responsibilities and roles in data management

Numerous jobs, responsibilities, and abilities are required for the data management process. In smaller companies with fewer resources, one employee may have several different functions. Data architects, data modelers, DBAs, database developers, data administrators, data quality analysts and engineers, and ETL developers are typically part of data management teams in bigger organizations. The data warehouse analyst, who assists in managing data in a data warehouse and creates analytical data models for business customers, is another profession that is becoming more prevalent.

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