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Main Difference Between Timestamp Protocol and Thomas Write Rule in DBMS

Concurrency Protocol:

Concurrency control protocols are the ways of implementing transactions in such a way that the isolation property of the DBMS will be maintained. In terms of the amount of concurrency they permit and the overhead they impose, various concurrency control techniques offer varying benefits.

To understand the difference between timestamp protocol and Thomas write rule, we must understand both of these in a brief manner.

Timestamp Protocol in DBMS:

There are a lot of ways to implement concurrency control in DBMS, and one of the most used techniques is lock-based protocol. Another way is to use a timestamp ordering protocol for concurrency control. We can identify each transaction uniquely in the DBMS by using a timestamp which is assigned in the order they are submitted to the system.

For a transaction, the T timestamp can be represented as TS(T).

This protocol's fundamental idea is to organize the transactions according to their Timestamps. The transactions are then serializable within the schedule, and the only corresponding serial schedule that is allowed has the transactions in the order of their timestamp values. Simply said, the order of the Transaction timestamps corresponds to the particular Serial Order that the schedule represents. For each item in the schedule that is accessed by Conflicting Operations, an algorithm must make sure that the order in which the item is accessed does not go against the ordering. Use two Timestamp Values associated with each database item K to ensure this.

Timestamp Ordering:

Based on when a transaction enters the system, it is given a timestamp. Assume that a new transaction Tj is given the timestamp TS(Tj), such that TS(Ti) <TS(Tj), if an old transaction Ti contains the timestamp TS(Ti). The protocol controls concurrent execution so that the order of serializability is determined by the timestamps. Conflicting read and write operations are always carried out in timestamp order thanks to the timestamp ordering mechanism. The Basic TO method checks the timestamp of Transaction T against R_TS(K) & W_TS(K) to make sure the Timestamp order is not broken whenever Transaction T attempts to issue a R_item(K) or a W_item(K).

ts Counter:

A counter called the ts counter is employed in time-stamping systems. When a commit operation has taken place in the system, it increases its value by 1 in that instance. When a new transaction enters the system, it must satisfy the condition that TS[Ti]<TS[Ti] if timestamp TS[Ti] has been issued to transaction Ti.

Thomas Write Rule:

If Ri(K) and Wj(K) are conflicting operations, Timestamp Ordering Protocol stipulates that Ri(K) is processed before Wj(K) if and only if TS(Ti)<TS (Tj). A user typically rejects a schedule and rolls back the Transaction whenever it does not follow a serializability order as determined by the Timestamp. On the other hand, some procedures are safe and can be approved.

Such activities are permitted under the Thomas Write Rule, a modification of the Basic Timestamp Ordering protocol. Users of the Thomas Write Rule disregard dated writings. A user can obtain concurrency using View Serializable schedules, which is the most significant advance of all the Concurrency Protocols that have been presented. Thomas Write Rule imposes concurrency on schedules that are Conflict Serializable.

Thomas Write Rule modifies the check Operations for W _item(X to reject fewer write operations while without enforcing Conflict Serializability.

It is the timestamp ordering protocol updated. If transaction Ti sends write(K), then:

  • If TS[Ti] <R-TS(K), the value of K that Ti is now producing was previously required and was thought to be unproducible. In turn, the system rolls Ti back and refuses the write action.
  • Ti is trying to write an absolute value of K if TS[Ti]<W-TS(K). This write operation can therefore be disregarded.
  • In the event that this occurs, the system performs the write operation and sets w-TS(K) to TS (Ti).

Key Differences between Timestamp Protocol and Thomas Write Rule:

The second rule in the timestamp ordering protocol states that Ti is rolled back if write (K) is issued by Ti and TS[Ti]<W-ts(K). This is the one difference between thomas write and timestamp protocol. If TS(Ti) = R timestamp(K), the Thomas writes rule allows the write operation to be disregarded.

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