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Tuple in DBMS

A tuple is an essential component in the relational database management system. Relational database management stores data in tables.

A tuple contains all the information of a particular entity. The table is composed of fields and a tuple. A tuple represents a row in the table and the data associated with the entity. The data in RDBMS is arranged across several columns and rows. The column represents the attribute of an entity, such as age, gender, marks, etc.

In the DBMS relational model, the database is represented as a collection of relations between entities and their attributes.

A relation represents a table that contains certain values in the form of rows and columns, where a row or tuple is a collection of related data values. Each value stored inside each row, column, and the table is important for determining the table's name. Though the data is arranged in tables in RDBMS, the data storage does not depend on the logical structure of the data.

A tuple in the DBMS refers to a single record in the relational db. It represents the entire data in a single row of the relational table. The data is stored in the table format by attribute and tuples in DBMS.

The data may be available in an entire spreadsheet in the database consisting of numerous rows known as a tuple with a value corresponding to each field present in the tuple.

The user can perform several operations on the data stored in the field or tuple of the tables. These operations include inserting, removing, modifying, or update on the data values stored in the table. The user can also perform a join operation on the tuples in two different relations. Join operations are used to combine the data values in two tables.


Edward Frank Codd invented the relational database management system while working for IBM. He defined the relationship as a collection of unique tuples. It can be represented as a set of tuples (d1, d2, ….dn) where each element di of the relation is a member of a particular domain Di.

There is no fixed arrangement of the components or elements of the tuple of a relation. The tuple in DBMS differs from the tuple that was defined in mathematics. Every component in the database is referred to as a value for the attribute. It can be a name, a number, or a date. The attribute can have only one datatype assigned to it.

A tuple in a database management system is a combination of field values. A field value is related to a common field name and a component associated with the field domain. In a tuple, having two unique values with the same values is impossible.

E.F. Codd defined a relation as a financial relation or a combination of tuples or records in a set of N sets S1, S2, S3…, SN.

Because of the above definition by E.F. Codd, the relation was interpreted as an n-adic predicate.

As a result, the Closed-World Assumption interprets a relation as an extension of an n-adic predicate.

Below is an example of a tuple with fields such as the client's name, contact number, email address, and nationality of the client.

Harsh Verma 9337XXXXX [email protected] Indian

In mathematics, a tuple can be described as an ordered list of elements of the same or different data types. According to the set theory, the n-tuple can be defined as a collection of n elements. The tuples represent a particular record of the table.

The management systems implement the relational model called the relational database management system. Most of the time, when a user wants to store data in a DBMS, the data is stored in tables. It is easy to read the data in tables as it is more organized.

In DBMS, a unique key is assigned to each table that is used to organize and identify the elements. This key is known as the table's primary key and is unique for each record present. In DBMS, the user can add a column containing the value from another table's column. This enables the user to link the tuple of different tables.

The rows in the tables represent the records in the database, and the columns represent the attributes associated with the entity.

A tuple is a single row in a database. The record contains all the information about an entity in the relation. A tuple or record is a name associated with using a particular entity in the item. In contrast, in mathematics, a tuple is an ordered list of elements that contains a set of associated data to the elements in the table.

Working with Tuple in DBMS with Examples

Given below is a table that contains several tuples or records. Using this table, we will learn to work with a tuple in DBMS. The below table is a student record table that contains information such as students' names, age, subjects, and marks. The table has an additional column ID that contains a unique value for each row present in the table.

Thus, as you can see that each row in the database contains information about another individual.

For instance, the first row contains information about a student named Harsh. This row can also be referred to as the record, as it contains the record of each student in the database. These rows and records in the database are called a tuple.

Thus, in the database management system, the tuple is a row containing all the information related to a particular entity. The entity can be an employee, a student, a customer, or a user.

ID Name Age Subject Marks
1 Harsh 27 Hindi 84
2 Harshil 24 Physics 93
3 Harshit 23 English 78
4 Harshita 26 Maths 91

In the above figure, you can see that a tuple or record contains the entire information about a single entity, such as the age, subject, and marks obtained in the subject.

Types of Tuple

Spurious Tuple: A record or row in the database formed because of linking the two tables incorrectly. These additional tuples may not be required to present the information in the database. The user may need to normalize the table to eliminate these tuples.

If the user does not want spurious tuples in the table, then the relationship must follow the provided relation. If the relation is denoted by R, the relation can be decomposed as follows R1, R2….and so on.

R1 ⨝ R2 ⨝ R3 .... ⨝ Rn = R

While the following should be fulfilled to get the spurious duplicates of the relation:

R, R1, R2, R3,..., Rn


Most database stores data in the form of a table that consists of tuples and attributes. A row corresponding data to a certain object is called a tuple in a database management system. The above tutorial taught you about tuples in a database and how to use them in DBMS.

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