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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development

NCERT Social Science Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development: Students should consider these solutions because they are convenient and simple to understand. These solutions come with proper explanations, making studying easier. Additionally, the solutions are free and without any time restrictions for students to study online. Students develop important exam-related presentation skills by learning how to write clear explanations in paragraphs and how to use bullets in the solutions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development

Exercise Page No 12

1.) Multiple choice questions.


i.) Which one of the following type of resource is iron ore?

  1. Renewable
  2. Biotic
  3. Flow
  4. Non-renewable

Answer: d.) Non-renewable


Iron is an example of a non-renewable resource. A natural resource called iron ore has only been found in trace amounts on earth. It cannot be spontaneously generated as quickly as it is depleted. As a result, it is a non-renewable resource.

Three physical characteristics can distinguish minerals: color, density, and hardness. Chemical traits like solubility can be used to identify minerals.

i.) Minerals are naturally occurring substances with unique chemical compositions.

ii) They are produced in a variety of geological environments and conditions.

iii.) Minerals are examples of non-renewable resources.


ii.) Under which of the following type of resource tidal energy cannot be put?

  1. Replenishable
  2. Human-made
  3. Abiotic
  4. Non-recyclable

Answer: a.) Replenishable


Explanation for Correct Option (a):

1.) The surge of the world's oceans brought on by tides rising and falling is referred to as tidal energy.

2.) Renewable resources are also sometimes referred to as replenishable since they can be duplicated or changed by mechanical, biochemical, and physiological processes.

3.) Additional subcategories of renewable resources include biological, permanent, and flow resources. Water and the wind are examples of renewable resources that are always available.

Explanation for Incorrect Options:

Option (b):

1.) Human-made resources, sometimes referred to as capital resources, are tangible assets created by people that, could have been exploited to increase wealth.

Option (c):

2.) All fundamental non-biotic raw materials not produced by living beings are referred to as abiotic resources.

Option (d):

3.) Non-recyclable material are those materials that can only be used once.

Therefore, Option (a) is the right one.


iii.) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?

  1. Intensive cultivation
  2. Deforestation
  3. Over irrigation
  4. Overgrazing

Answer: c.) Over irrigation


i.) In Punjab, over-irrigation is the primary cause of land degradation.

ii.) Waterlogging, which results from excessive irrigation, raises the soil's alkalinity and salinity.

iii.) Western Uttar Pradesh and Haryana also endure land degradation due to over-irrigation.


iv.) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practised?

  1. Punjab
  2. Plains of Uttar Pradesh
  3. Haryana
  4. Uttarakhand

Answer: Uttarakhand

Explanation: In Uttarakhand, terrace cultivation is used. It is carried out on steep slopes to provide a flat platform for crop cultivation. It can lessen surface runoff and soil erosion. One of the crops grown with rooftop farming is tea. The eastern hills' slopes offer ideal growth conditions for tea thanks to their humid temperature, consistent rainfall, and lack of water logging.


v.) In which of the following states black soil is predominantly found?

  1. Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Maharashtra
  3. Rajasthan
  4. Jharkhand

Answer: b.) Maharashtra


1.) Black soil covers the Saurashtra and Malwa plateaus.

2.) The other states with black soil are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.

3.) The black dirt is located in the Andhra Pradesh river valleys of the Krishna and Godavari.

4.) The majority of black soil is composed of clay.

5.) The ability of black soil to hold a lot of moisture is well known.

6.) Black soil contains nutrients like lime, potash, magnesium, and calcium carbonate.

7.) Low levels of phosphorus can be found in black soil.

8.) Black soil is also known as regur earth.

9.) Black dirt is also known as black cotton soil.

10.) Black soil is the greatest type for growing cotton.

11.) Black soil needs to be well-ventilated in hotter temperatures because the soil cracks.

12.) It will be difficult to work on if black soil is not tilled during a pre-monsoon shower or just after the first shower since black soil becomes sticky in rainy weather.

13.) Black soil formation is significantly influenced by the parent rock type and the local environmental factors.

2.) Answer the following questions in about 30 words.


i.) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.


3 states having black soil are:

1.) Maharashtra

2.) Gujarat

3.) Madhya Pradesh

The crop which is mainly grown here is cotton.


ii.) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.


Alluvial soil is the type of soil found in the river deltas along the Eastern Coast.

1.) Additionally, alluvial soil can be found in the eastern coastal plains, particularly in the Godavari, Krishna, Mahanadi, and Kaveri river deltas.

2.) Alluvial soil is deposited by three significant Himalayan river systems which are Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Indus.

3.) Alluvial soil makes up the entirety of India's northern plains.

4.) The most significant and extensively distributed soil is alluvial soil.

Three main features of Alluvial Soil are:

1.) Because they are more alkaline, alluvial soils in drier locations can be productive with irrigation and adequate care.

2.) The alluvial soil is incredibly productive.

3.) Numerous crops are grown in alluvial soil due to their high fertility.

Other features of Alluvial Soil are:

1.) Pulse crops, cereals, wheat, paddy, and sugarcane are among the crops that can be produced in alluvial soil.

2.) The amounts of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime in the alluvial soil are suitable.

3.) The higher portions of the river basin have coarse alluvial soil.

4.) Such soils are more prevalent in the Terai, Chos, and Duars piedmont plains.

5.) As we travel north toward the river valleys, soil particles appear larger.

6.) Alluvial soil has different ratios of clay, silt, and sand.

7.) Along with its components and particle size, alluvial soil is also classified according to its age.

8.) Alluvial soil is divided into Khadar (new alluvial soil) and Bangar (old alluvial soil) according to age.

9.) Khadar alluvial soil has more fine particles and is more fertile than bhangar.

10.) Compared to Bangar, Kanker nodules are more prevalent in Khadar soil.


iii.) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?


The following list includes the main methods that can be applied:

1.) Contour Ploughing

2.) Terrace Farming

3.) Grass is permitted to grow in the gaps between the crops. Strip cropping is the term for this technique.


iv.) What are the biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.


Biotic resource:

1.) These are materials derived from the biosphere.

2.) These materials are alive.

3.) Examples include human beings, livestock, plants, animals, and fish.

Abiotic resource:

1.) These materials are made of inanimate objects.

2.) Examples include water, metals, minerals, wind, and solar energy.

3.) Answer the following questions in about 120 words.

i.) Explain the land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?


Physical elements like terrain, climate, and soil types, as well as human factors like population density, technical advancements, culture, and customs, among others, affect how land is used. From state to state, the pattern of the net sown area varies substantially. In Punjab and Haryana, it makes up more than 80% of the entire area, while in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and the Andaman Nicobar Islands, it makes up less than 10%. The country's forest area is much smaller than the target 33% of its total area, as stated in the National Forest Policy (1952). It was considered essential for the maintenance of the ecological balance. A part of the land is termed wasteland, and land is put to other non-agricultural uses. Wasteland includes rocky, arid, and desert areas, and land put to other non-agricultural uses include settlements, roads, railways, industry, etc. Continuous land use over a long period without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage has resulted in land degradation.

ii.) How has technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?


This is due to several factors.

1.) Resource overuse resulted from large-scale production.

2.) Resource exploitation increased as a result of technological development.

3.) Increased medical and health resources resulted in significant resource use.

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