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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries: In this article we have covered entire solution of NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 6. These solution have detailed explanation to answers so that student can acquire more knowledge and know the logic behind each answer. Explanations are also helpful for revising theory part. By reading these solution student can get a good hand on NCERT Geography Chapter 6 of Class 10.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 - Manufacturing Industries

Exercises: Page No. 79

1. Multiple choice questions.


i.) Which one of the following industries uses limestone as a raw material.

  1. Aluminium
  2. Cement
  3. Sugar
  4. Jute


b.) Cement


The cement industry requires heavy and bulky materials like limestone, gypsum, and alumina. India produces varieties of cement, for which it has 332 mini cement plants and 128 large plants. The first cement plant in India was set up in 1904 in Chennai, and it began to expand after India got its Independence.

Cement has wide usage. Almost every kind of construction activity requires cement as the key material. Cement is used in building bridges, factories, commercial buildings, roads, dams, etc.

To get easy access to gulf countries cement industry is mainly located in Gujarat. The cement industry is doing great in export, and because of its good quality, it is in high demand in the domestic market.


ii.) Which one of the following agencies markets steel for the public sector plants?

  1. HAIL
  2. SAIL
  3. TATA Steel
  4. MNCC


b.) SAIL


Full form of SAIL is Steel Authority of India Limited. Its headquarter is located in New Delhi. SAIL has 5 plants in India and also has 3 special plants. In India maximum concentration of iron and steel industry is in Chota Nagpur Plateau. Cheap labour, availability of raw material, low cost of iron ore and potential in home market makes Chota Nagpur Plateau best place to set up iron and steel industry.

Most of the public sector undertaking market their steel through SAIL. Private entrepreneurs, liberalisation and Foreign Direct Investment helped India to boost in steel industry. India was the largest exporter of steel in 2004 and in 1950 India produced same quantity of steel as China. Today China is the largest producer and consumer of steel.

India is also an important country in terms of iron and steel industry. However because of several reasons India has not reached its full potential. Poor infrastructure, irregular supply of energy, mini steel plants and high cost of coal are few reasons that's stopping India.


iii.) Which one of the following industries uses bauxite as a raw material?

  1. Aluminium
  2. Cement
  3. Jute
  4. Steel


a.) Aluminium


Bauxite is an ore of aluminum. Bauxite deposit is mainly found in Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni. The main reason for the deposition of bauxite is the wide variety of rocks rich in aluminum silicates. Aluminum is a highly malleable and good conductor of heat and electricity. It is very strong yet light.


iv.) Which one of the following industries manufactures telephones, computer, etc?

  1. Steel
  2. Electronic
  3. Aluminium
  4. Information Technology


b.) Electronic


Electronic industry is mainly categorized under consumer industry. In consumer industry the goods produced are used by consumers directly. Mica and Copper are two important minerals which is widely used in the electronic industry.


Mica is an important mineral used in electrical industry for making electronic items. This is because it can bear very high voltage and has good insulating properties. It also has low power loss factor and excellent di-electric strength. Mica is made by series of plates or leaves and can be beaten into sheets easily. It can be in various colour such as green, red, yellow or brown. Mica is mainly produced in Koderma Gaya - Hazaribagh in Jharkhand. Chota Nagpur Plateau and Ajmer region of Rajasthan are also producer of Mica.


Copper is an excellent conductor, ductile and malleable material. Copper is mostly used in chemical, electronic, and electrical wires. India's top copper producers include:

  1. The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh.
  2. The Khetri mines in Rajasthan.
  3. The Singhbhum area of Jharkhand.

2.) Answer the following briefly in not more than 30 words.


i.) What is manufacturing?


Manufacturing: Commodities are produced after being transformed from raw resources into more valuable things.

Primary activities involve obtaining natural resources as inputs, such as raw materials. The primary activities are fishing, forestry, agriculture, and mining. The processes that turn raw materials into finished goods are secondary activities. Production of items through manufacturing occurs after raw resources are transformed into more valuable products.


ii.) Name any three physical factors for the location of the industry.


The following physical elements affect where industries are located:

  1. Accessibility of Raw materials.
  2. The right weather.
  3. Energy and water supply.
  4. The presence of appropriate transportation options.


iii.) Name any three human factors for the location of an industry.


Cheap labor, the availability of services like consultants and financial guidance, and a market are three human factors that influence where industries are located.


iv.) What are the basic industries? Give an example.


One of the many categories of industries is the basic industries. The raw materials or goods provided by fundamental industries are used to produce various goods. Examples include the smelting of iron, copper, steel, and aluminum.

An example would be the supply of iron and steel to other industries as raw materials.


v.) Name the important raw materials used in the manufacturing of cement.


Limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum are the raw materials used in cement production.

3.) Write the answers to the following questions in 120 words.


i.) How are integrated steel plants different from mini steel plants? What problems does the industry face? What recent developments have led to a rise in the production capacity?


Integrated steel plants are big and do everything in one complex, from assembling raw materials to making steel to rolling and shaping it.

Mini steel plants are smaller, equipped with electric furnaces, and run on sponge iron and scrap steel. They have re-rollers as well, and they use steel ingots. According to specified requirements, they produce mild and alloy steel.

The steel industry is faced with the following obstacles:

  1. Coking coal is expensive and not widely available.
  2. Lower labor productivity
  3. An irregular supply of energy
  4. A poor infrastructure

Private entrepreneurs' efforts have helped the industry growth due to recent developments like liberalization and foreign direct investment (FDI).


ii.) How do industries pollute the environment?


Industries bring on four different types of pollution:

  1. Air
  2. Water
  3. Land
  4. Noise

High concentrations of harmful gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and airborne particulate matter, produce air pollution.

Industrial wastes, both organic and inorganic, and effluents released into water bodies are the main causes of water pollution. The biggest culprits are tanneries, paper, and refineries.

Water and soil pollution are interconnected. The soil becomes unusable for agricultural purposes when garbage is dumped on it. Following that, the pollutants contaminate groundwater by passing through the soil.

Industrial equipment and construction operations can contribute to noise pollution.


iii.) Discuss the steps to be taken to minimise environmental degradation by industry.


We can take the following actions to reduce the environmental damage caused by industries:

  1. Adopting the most recent methods and modernizing current equipment to increase energy efficiency.
  2. Establishing green belts to promote ecological balance.
  3. Electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers, and inertial separators can be added to factory smokestacks to minimize airborne particulate matter.
  4. Using silencers on equipment that produces noise.
  5. Reuse and recycle water in two or more sequential steps to reduce the amount used.
  6. Harvesting rainwater to fulfill water needs.
  7. Taking steps to treat hot water and effluents before discharging them into ponds and rivers.

Three stages can be used to treat industrial effluents:

  1. Mechanical first aid as treatment. Sifting, grinding, flocculation, and sedimentation are all involved in this process.
  2. Biological process-based secondary treatment.
  3. Biological, chemical, and physical processes are used in tertiary treatment. Wastewater recycling is a part of this.

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