NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 - Print Culture and the Modern World
Here we have provided the solution of NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 5. All the solutions are written in detail. By reading these solutions students will have a good grip over the chapter Print Culture and the Modern World. These solutions will help students in their school home work as well as in exams.
Page No. 128
Write in Brief
1.) Give reason for the following:
a.) The Italian traveler Marco Polo traveled to China and studied woodblock printing techniques. In 1295, he returned to Italy and brought this information with him. This understanding gradually moved beyond Italy to other parts of Europe.
b.) The religious reformer Martin Luther produced 95 theses in 1517 that criticized the corrupt methods of the Catholic Church and nailed them to the Wittenberg church door. The printing of Luther's theses quickly resulted in the dissemination of his views through thousands of copies. Realizing the impact that printing had on the development of the reformation movement and, ultimately, Protestantism deeply impacted Martin Luther.
c.) Print media and widely read literature encouraged various interpretations of religious beliefs and concepts. Manocchio, an Italian roller in the 16th century, started reading literature that was easily accessible in his area. He offered a fresh reading of the Bible and developed a theology of God and the universe that infuriated the Roman Catholic Church. Manocchio was, as a result, twice hauled up and eventually put to death when the Roman Catholic Church launched its inquisition.
d.) During the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922, Mahatma Gandhi uttered these statements (1920-22). No nation, he claimed, could ever live without the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, and the freedom of association. These liberties were crucial if the nation was to be free of foreign rule.
2.) Write short notes on what you know about:
a.) Europe's first printing press was the Gutenberg Press. Johannes Gutenberg of Strasbourg is credited with creating it. He had experience running olive and wine presses because he was raised on a sizable farm. The Bible was the first book printed using the printing press, which he created in 1448.
b.) The printing of books disturbed the Latin scholar Erasmus because he feared it would encourage the spread of texts containing revolutionary ideas. Although some books might provide important knowledge, the bulk of texts is likely irrelevant or illogical, propagating scandalous or irreligious notions and, finally, fomenting rebellion.
c.) In 1878, the British administration in India passed the Vernacular Press Act. Through this law, the government gained broad authority to restrict opinions and news articles published in the Vernacular Press. A Vernacular Paper was prohibited from publication if it contained any seditious material, and its printing equipment was seized and destroyed.
3.) What did the spread of print culture in the nineteenth century India mean to:
a.) Women gained equal status to readers and writers. Among them, reading habits improved. As literacy rose, women developed a strong interest in reading and writing. The value of women's education was beginning to be emphasized in many journals. Books and publications targeted specifically at women have been widely published. The print culture gave women some freedom to read and form their own opinions on various topics, particularly those pertaining to women.
b.) The spread of printed materials, particularly for pleasure, reached even the poor as literacy rates rose in India and Europe. In England, "penny magazines" were sold for one penny each and were distributed by peddlers, allowing even the poorest people to purchase them. People who couldn't read could still hear the legends and stories. Others might read these folktales and tales to them. Some book proprietors offered to rent out their books for a little charge. Poor people could access print culture even in India thanks to introduction of relatively affordable compact books to the market in Madras cities during the 19th century.
c.) To draw attention to the social ills pervasive throughout society, reformers employed newspapers, journals, and literature. The "Sambad Kaumudi" was written by Raja Ram Mohan Roy to draw attention to the condition of widows. Many Bengali women writers, including Kailashbashini Debi, began focusing on women's experiences in their works in the 1860s. These books describe how women were imprisoned at home, kept in the dark, made to perform difficult domestic tasks, and subjected to unfair treatment by the men who were supposed to be their masters.
1.) Why did some people in the eighteenth century Europe think that culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism?
After the advent of print culture, new ideas began to circulate, and philosophers' and scientists' ideas were now more widely available to the general public. Scientific books from antiquity and the middle ages were collected and published.
The book as a tool for progress by the seventeenth century, and had developed into a means of disseminating knowledge that might alter society and the course of the world. Additionally, it was thought that literature would free society from dictatorship and tyranny.
The works of philosophers like Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Thomas Paine, and Voltaire were also frequently printed and had the potential to become well-known. As a result, popular literature began to incorporate their notions about science, reason, and reasoning.
When scientists like Isaac Newton started publishing their findings, maps and more precise scientific illustrations were printed in large quantities. They might affect a far broader audience of readers interested in science.
2.) Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? Choose one example from Europe and one from India.
Due to the widespread adoption of literacy among the general populace, some people, particularly from the upper class, worry about the impact of readily available written literature. Some people believed it would trigger the spread of uprisings and irreligious ideas. They were concerned that they might be demoted or lose their power.
i.) Through the Index of Prohibited Books, the Roman Catholic Church attempted to control the spread of printed books in Europe.
ii.) Indian newspapers and other local publications were subject to limitations in India under the Vernacular Press Act.
3.) What were the effects of the spread of print culture for poor people in nineteenth-century India?
Since the early 20th century, public libraries have been established, increasing readership. These libraries were mostly found in urban areas, though they occasionally appeared in affluent villages. Building a library was a means for wealthy residents to gain notoriety in their community.
Caste discrimination issues began to be covered in numerous printed tracts and essays starting in the late nineteenth century.
In his Gulamgiri essay, Maratha, pioneer of "low caste" protest movements Jyotiba Phule, discussed the evils of the caste system (1871). B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker, often known as Periyar, both wrote persuasively on caste in the 20th century, and their works were read throughout India. In addition, regional sects and protest organizations produced numerous popular periodicals and tracts which critiqued the biblical texts and envisioned a more equitable future.
Poverty-stricken people were at least aware of their rights and their position in society, and print media illustrated how they might improve their lives.
4.) Explain how the print culture assisted in the growth of nationalism in India.
India's rise of nationalism was aided by print culture in the following ways:
It was simpler to overcome linguistic barriers between the various Indian ethnic groups by the end of the 19th century because of the widespread publication of newspapers in Indian vernacular languages.
Articles authored by national leaders were published in these newspapers. Through these newspapers, the general public was exposed to their ideals.
Thus, print media served to link people from many areas and locations. Newspapers disseminated news from one location to another, fostering a sense of Indian identity.
Nationalist publications revealed imperial mismanagement and promoted nationalist initiatives. The average person may easily understand the content because these were written in widely used regional tongues.