Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation

In this article we are going to discuss about NCERT Solution of Class 10 history Chapter 4. These solutions are written to make students task easy. Here all answers are written in depth and up to point. Reading these solutions will help students understand the chapter and concept more easily.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation

Page No. 102

Write in Brief


1.) Explain the following:

  1. Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny
  2. In the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages
  3. The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century
  4. The East India Company appointed 'gomasthas' to supervise weavers in India


a.) The Spinning Jenny was created in 1764 by James Hargreaves. This device accelerated the spinning procedure while requiring less labor. With this device, a single employee could turn several spindles and spin several threads simultaneously. This would result in the unemployment of numerous weavers. Women who relied on hand-spinning as a means of income attacked the new machines for fear of losing their jobs.

b.) Global trade grew extremely quick during the 17th and 18th centuries. The purchase of colonies partly caused the rise in demand. The towns' producers could not produce as much cloth as was needed. Because of the strength of the urban crafts and trade guilds, the producers could not increase production in the towns. These producer groups imposed restrictions on newcomers' ability to enter the market. The monarchs gave guilds exclusive rights to produce and trade in certain goods.

c.) The European corporations were consolidating their dominance by winning several concessions from the regional courts. Due to the massive riches of most European nations, it was extremely difficult for Indian merchants and traders to compete. A few European businesses now have the exclusive right to trade.

By the end of the eighteenth century, Surat Port was in decline due to everything said. Trade through Surat had a gross value of 16 million in the final years of the seventeenth century. It fell to 3 million by the 1740s. As time passed, Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata) expanded while Surat and Hooghly deteriorated.

d.) To have greater direct control over the weavers, the firm tried eliminating the current dealers and brokers involved in the textile trade. To oversee weavers, gather supplies, and assess the fabric's quality, it hired a salaried servant named Gomastha.


2.) Write True or False against each statement:

  1. At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 percent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector
  2. The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century
  3. The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India
  4. The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.


a.) False

By the end of the nineteenth century, just 20% of all workers were employed in industries with advanced technology. Although the textile industry was vibrant, a significant amount of the output was produced outside, in residential units, rather than in factories. The speed of technological advancement was not rapid; rather, it was gradual.

The diffusion of technological advancements was not rapid across the industrial landscape. Industrialists and business people were wary about implementing new technology. Innovative technologies were pricey. Machines often broke down and required expensive repairs. Their efficacy could have been advertised more by their creators and producers.

b.) True

Henry Patullo, an officer with the East India Company, asserted in 1772 that the demand for Indian textiles could never decline because no other country produced goods of the same caliber. From the start of the 19th century, India's exports of textiles have been on a lengthy fall.

Before the rise of machine industries, Indian silk and cotton products dominated the global textile market. The finer types of cotton were frequently made in India, even though numerous nations produced coarser cotton.

c.) False

Contrarily, the American Civil War led to an increase in cotton shipments from India to Britain. American civil war disrupted cotton shipments to Britain. As a result, Britain looked to India for the cotton supply needed by its industry. As raw cotton exports from India to Britain surged at this time, the price of raw cotton in India skyrocketed. Due to growing exports from India, there was a shortage of raw cotton for cotton weavers. In India, the cost of purchasing raw cotton was extravagant for weavers.

d.) True

Reduced labor demand, quicker production, and increased worker productivity were all made possible by Fly Shuttle. With the development of the fly shuttle, it became possible for weavers to weave wide garments and run big looms. The second decade of the twentieth century saw fly shuttle looms for weaving.

The fly shuttle was one of many inventions that raised workers' output; there were other smaller ones. By 1931, fly shuttles were installed in more than 35% of India's hand looms. In areas like Bengal, Cochin, Mysore, Madras, and Travancore, the proportion of handlooms with fly shuttles was as high as 70% to 80 %.


3.) Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.


The early stages of industrialization, or proto-industrialization, were not based on the factory system. Large-scale industrial manufacturing for a global market existed before the advent of factories. The term "proto-industrialization" refers to this period in industrial history.



1.) Why did some industrialists in nineteenth-century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?


Because new technology and machines were expensive and unproven in the 19th century, some British European industrialists preferred hand labor to machinery. Because of this, the industrialists and producers were wary of employing them. Machines broke down frequently, and fixing them was expensive.

Numerous migrants and poor peasants made mass migrations to urban areas for employment. As a result, a sizable labor force could be hired for a low wage. Industrialists favored hand labor in seasonal sectors where production fluctuated with the seasons, simply hiring people as needed. The equipment at hand at the time couldn't manufacture the variety of goods the market demanded. For example, the production of 45 different types of axes and 500 different types of hammers in Britain in the middle of the nineteenth century required human talents rather than mechanical technology.


2.) How did East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?


The East India Company used several measures to guarantee consistent cotton and silk fabric supplies. To monopolize the right to trade, they built political power.

The corporation made an effort to control the weavers directly while getting rid of the current textile wholesalers and brokers. To monitor weavers, gather supplies, and assess fabric quality, it appointed paid workers known as "Gomasthas."

It stopped the business weavers from doing business with other customers. The weavers received loans to pay for the raw materials once an order had been placed. The Gomasthas were the only ones who received the cloth made by those who took out loans. No other trader could accept it from them.

They created a system of administration and control to eliminate rivalry, manage costs, and guarantee a steady supply of cotton and silk products. With the help of this method, the corporation was obliged to sell at a set price. The corporation bonded the weavers to them by offering them a loan.


3.) Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire.


In the history of cotton, the following inventions in 18th-century England?listed in chronological order?are significant turning points. The Spinning Jenny was created in 1764 by James Hargreaves. This greatly accelerated the spinning work.

In 1769, John Key created the "Flying Shuttle," which accelerated the weaving process. To be powered by water, Richard Arkwright improved the "Spinning Jenny" in 1769. He referred to it as the "Water Frame."

The "Mule," created by Samuel Crompton in 1776, combined the benefits of the "Water Frame" with the "Spinning Jenny." The steam-powered power loom, created in 1785 by Edmund Cartwright, was used for spinning and weaving.

The 'Cotton Gin,' created in 1793 by American inventor Eli Whitney, provided a solution for the issue of separating cotton seeds from fibers. Three hundred times faster than by hand, this could remove the seeds from the fibers. Later, Arkwright built a full-fledged cotton mill where the entire process of making textiles could be completed under one roof and administration.

Operating cotton mills relied heavily on the utilization of steam power. In a very short period, textile production increased with less physical labor. During the start of the 19th century, England had around 321 steam engines, of which 80 were employed in cotton textile mills.

The East India Company used "Gomasthas," salaried company personnel, to oversee weavers, gather supplies, and assess and inspect the quality of textiles. The Gomasthas served as the East India Company's and the weavers' intermediary. The corporation issued loans for the weavers to buy the raw materials for weaving the cloth.


7.) Why did industrial production in India increased during the First World War?


As a result of the following factors, India's industrial output grew during the First World War. Manchester imports into India fell due to the British mills' increased focus on producing goods for the war effort. Indian mills have a sizable home market to supply as a result of the abrupt fall in imports.

Indian factories were requested to furnish additional military necessities, such as Jute bags, material for soldier uniforms, tents, and leather boots, as the conflict dragged on. While the country was at war, numerous new factories were built, and existing ones organized multiple shifts. Indian businesses benefited from the First World War.

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA