NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 - Rise of Nationalism in Europe
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Exercise: Page No. 28
Write in Brief
1.) Write a note on:
a.) Guiseppe Mazzini: He was an Italian revolutionary who contributed significantly to the cause of a single Italian state. He thought that because nations were the basic social units for humanity, it was necessary to unite the several petty republics and kingdoms that made up Italy into a single, undivided republic. He attempted to develop a compelling plan for such a unitary Italian Republic in the 1830s. Additionally, he founded Young Italy and Young Europe, two covert societies. His views were spread more widely thanks to these societies.
b.) Count Camillo de Cavour: Only Sardinia-Piedmont, one of Italy's seven republics, was controlled by a princely house from Italy. The task of creating a unified Italy fell to this Italian state after the revolutionary revolutions of 1831 and 1848 failed to do so. Cavour served as the country's chief minister and was ruled by King Victor Emmanuel II. Cavour led the effort to merge the many states of nineteenth-century Italy. In 1859, he masterminded the meticulous diplomatic alliance with France that enabled Sardinia-Piedmont to defeat Austrian armies, freeing the northern region of Italy from the Austrian Habsburgs.
c.) The Greek war of independence: The Ottoman Empire had included Greece from the fifteenth century. Greeks started fighting for independence in 1821 due to the rise of revolutionary nationalism in Europe.
Poets and artists praised Greece as the birthplace of European civilization and stoked public sympathy for its war against an Islamic power.
Other Greeks were living in exile, and numerous West Europeans who supported ancient Greek culture provided support for nationalists in Greece.
Finally, Greece's independence was recognized by the Treaty of Constantinople in 1832.
d.) Frankfurt parliament: Middle-class professionals, successful businesspeople, and wealthy artisans from various German areas made up the all-German National Assembly. It was held on May 18, 1848, in Frankfurt, Germany, at the Church of St. Paul. This body prepared the constitution for a country called Germany, which would have a monarchy under the control of a parliament. The military and nobility, however, were opposed to it. Additionally, because the middle classes predominated, it lost its broad support base. On May 31, 1849, it was ultimately forced to dissolve.
e.) The role of women in nationalist struggles: Men and women play equal roles in artistic representations of the French Revolution. Women actively participated in nationalist movements in Europe because liberal nationalism advocated for universal suffrage and idealized liberty as a woman. The Frankfurt parliament, where women were only allowed to attend as observers from the visitors' gallery, is one instance where women actively participated in nationalist struggles but were given little to no political privileges.
2.) What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
French revolutionaries took following steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people:
3.) Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
Marianne: In the nineteenth century, painters created the feminine allegorical Marianne to represent France. Statues of Marianne were placed in public spaces to serve as a reminder of the nation's symbol of unity and to compel the populace to identify with it.
French artists used female allegories to represent concepts like republicanism, justice, and Liberty during the French Revolution. The cockade, the tricolor, and the red cap were taken as symbols of Marianne from Republic and Liberty. Images of Marianne were imprinted on stamps and money.
While a broken chain or red cap represents Liberty, justice is typically represented by a blindfolded woman pulling a pair of scales. Since Marianne was a well-liked Christian name, France was symbolized by Marianne. Marianne emphasized the concept of a nation of the people.
Germania: Germania served as the allegory for Germany.
Germania is crowned with oak leaves, just as the German oak symbolizes bravery.
Artists used a female figure to represent a nation in their personification of that nation.
In the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, painters discovered a way to personify a country. It was about giving a country a face. Nations were portrayed as though they were people. A female figure served as the country's metaphor.
Female figures represented a country. The female figure was chosen to represent the country in concrete form while conveying an abstract sense. The selected feminine form did not represent any certain type of woman in actual life.
4.) Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Conservatives frequently used nationalist emotions to consolidate political control over Europe and advance state authority. This may be seen in the process of how Italy and Germany came to form one nation-state.
The acts of powerful landowners known as the Junkers of Prussia prevented middle-class Germans from successfully uniting the various provinces of the German Confederation. The Prussians prevailed in three wars fought for seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France. German Emperor William I of Prussia was crowned in January 1871.
Modernizing Germany's monetary, banking, legal, and judicial systems received significant attention.
5.) What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
All privileges based on birth were eliminated by the Civil Code of 1804, sometimes known as the Napoleonic Code, which also safeguarded property rights and established equality before the law. This Code was distributed throughout the territories ruled by France. Napoleon streamlined administrative structures, eliminated the feudal system and released peasants from serfdom and manorial dues in the Dutch Republic, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany. Guild restrictions were lifted in the towns as well. Systems for communication and transportation were enhanced. Farmers, craftspeople, workers, and new business owners benefited from their newfound freedom. In particular, business-people and small-scale manufacturers of goods began to realize that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would expedite the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
1.) Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Another revolution was in progress in 1848, concurrent with the impoverished's uprisings. The educated middle classes led this liberal revolution, which was experienced by the unemployed, the hungry peasants, and the workers in many European nations. Following February 1848, France declared a republic with universal male suffrage and the monarch's abdication.
Men and women in the liberal middle classes combined their calls for constitutionalism with calls for national unification in other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist, such as Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
They seized the opportunity presented by the escalating unrest among the populace to advance their demands for establishing a nation-state based on parliamentary ideals, including freedom of the press, associational freedom, and a constitution.
Within the liberal movement, which had seen a significant increase in the number of women actively participating over time, the question of granting political rights to women was contentious. In addition to founding newspapers and political organizations and participating in rallies and protests, women have established their political associations.
2.) Choose three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe.
Three examples to show the contribution of culture to the growth of nationalism in Europe were as follows:
One of the most significant factors was language. Polish was expelled from schools after the Russian occupation, and Russian was made the official language everywhere. Poland's clergy started using language as a tool for resistance against the country's government. All church activities and sermons were conducted in Polish. Polish usage eventually became associated with resistance to Russian hegemony.
Romantic writers, artists, and poets typically criticized the exaltation of reason and science and placed a greater emphasis on feelings, intuition, and mystic experiences. They attempted to present a nation's foundation as a shared cultural past. A certain brand of nationalist sentiment was aimed to be developed through this cultural movement.
3.) Traditional tunes, folk dances, and poetry:
Through the methods mentioned above, the nation's true spirit was popularized. In order to develop a nation, gathering and preserving various types of folk culture was crucial.
3.) Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Focus countries - Germany and Italy.
Conservatives frequently used nationalist sentiments to consolidate political control over Europe and advance state power. This may be seen in the process of how Italy and Germany came to form one nation-state.
Middle-class Germans attempted to unite the various German Confederation regions, but their efforts were unsuccessful due to the actions of powerful landowners known as the "Junkers of Prussia." Prussia prevailed in three conflicts spanning seven years with Austria, Denmark, and France. The German emperor, William I of Prussia, was crowned in January 1871.
Modernizing Germany's monetary, banking, legal, and judicial systems received significant attention.
During the 1830s, Mazzini sought to unify Italy. He had formed a secret society called 'Young Italy', and it had failed. Hence, the responsibility fell on Sardinia-Piedmont, under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II, to unify Italian states through war.
4.) How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
The nation-state's emergence was not the result of an abrupt revolution or upheaval. It was the outcome of a protracted process.
Ethnic identities like English, Welsh, Scots, or Irish were the main identities of those who lived in the British Isles.
The creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain was made possible by the Act of Union between England and Scotland. Scottish people were forbidden from using their native tongue or donning their traditional garb. Many were forced to leave their home country.
1801 saw the forcible incorporation of Ireland into the UK. The English accomplished this by assisting the Irish Protestants in seizing control over the Catholics.
God save our Noble King, the national anthem of Great Britain, and the English language were actively promoted, and the older nations only survived as inferior partners in this union.
5.) Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, and Montenegro are all diverse in this region, both in geography and ethnic composition. Slavs was a general term used to describe the local population.
The Ottoman Empire possessed a significant portion of it. They were deemed to be independent throughout time.
Along with the Ottoman Empire's collapse, the romantic nationalism movement swept throughout the Balkans, creating an extremely volatile situation.