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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 - The Making of a Global World

This article contains detailed solution about NCERT Class 10 History Chapter 3. All the questions have properly detailed answers. These solutions are very helpful for students studying in class 10 as this will benefit them in their school exams as well as board exams.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 - The Making of a Global World

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1.) Give two examples of different types of global exchanges which took place in the seventeenth century, choosing one example from Asia and one from the Americas.


Examples of cultural contact between people from Asia and the Americas include the following:

The Silk Route (in Asia): A successful example of intercultural commerce and global interconnection is the Silk Route. The term "Silk Route" alludes to the significance of Chinese silk cargoes traveling west along this route.

Trade and cultural exchange have long been intertwined. Early Muslim preachers a few centuries later, as well as early Christian missionaries, probably certainly took this path to Asia.

Food from the Americas: Before Christopher Columbus' accidental discovery of the Americas, our ancestors were unaware of many of the foods that are staples of our diet today, including potatoes, soy, groundnuts, maize, tomatoes, chilies, sweet potatoes, etc.

These foodstuffs were the first to reach Europe and the rest of the world following the historic discovery of the new continent.


2.) Explain how the global transfer of disease in the pre-modern world helped in the colonisation of the Americas.


In the premodern period, sickness spread across borders, aiding the colonization of the Americas. The native Americans were susceptible to the diseases that the European settlers carried with them. Therefore this was the cause. Because of their extensive exposure to diseases like smallpox over many years, the Europeans were, in some ways, immune to their effects. The original Americans lacked this defense against the illness, though, as they were cut off from illnesses that originated in the ancient world.

Sometimes, settlers engaged in premeditated biological warfare against the Indians by presenting them with "gifts of kindness" packed with the smallpox virus. Without the need for weapons, the disease was much more efficient at eradicating entire tribes and towns.


3.) Write a note to explain the effect of the following:

  1. The British government's decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
  2. The coming of rinderpest to Africa.
  3. The death of men of working age in Europe because of the World War.
  4. The Great Depression on the Indian economy.
  5. The decision of MNCs to relocate production to Asian countries.


a.) The landed groups, dissatisfied with the high cost of food and the low cost of agricultural imports from Australia and America, exerted pressure on the British government to remove the Corn Laws. Many English farmers left their jobs and moved to towns and cities. Some left for abroad. This indirectly influenced international agriculture and the quick urbanization that is a requirement for industrial growth.

b.) In the late 1880s, a cow plague known as Rinderpest which spreads quickly reached Africa. It had a frightening effect on people's lives and the regional economy. Beginning in East Africa, it quickly spread to other regions of the continent. By the time it arrived at the Cape of Good Hope (Africa's southernmost tip), it had killed 90% of the region's cattle population. It was transmitted by sick cattle from British Asia to feed the Italian invaders of Eritrea in East Africa. Due to the effect of Rinderpest and the loss of their means of subsistence, the Africans were compelled to work for a living. By controlling the limited livestock resources and forcing Africans into the labor market, colonizing powers could monopolize this position and conquer and subjugate Africa.

c.) The first industrial conflict occurred during the First World War. Machine guns, tanks, airplanes, chemical weapons, etc., were all extensively used at this time. Millions of soldiers had to be enlisted from all over the world and transported on big ships and trains to the front lines to fight in such a conflict. No other fight in the modern era has caused death and destruction. Men of working age made up the majority of the dead and injured; their demises and wounds significantly diminished Europe's physically fit workforce. After the war, households had fewer members, which resulted in a decrease in revenue. So, women began to take over the roles that men had previously filled. It expanded the role of women and sparked a call for social equality. It strengthened the feminist movement even more.

d.) Colonial India evolved in the nineteenth century into an exporter of agricultural products and an importer of manufactured goods. The effects of the Great Depression were felt in India, particularly in the agricultural industry. It was clear that the Indian economy was becoming more and more entwined with the global economy. India was a British colony that imported manufactured commodities and exported agricultural products. Prices fell in India along with the rest of the world. Between 1928 and 1934, wheat prices in India decreased by 50%.

e.) Industry migration to low-wage nations boosted global capital flows and trade. In Asian nations like China, wages were often low. As a result, they became desirable locations for investment by foreign MNCs opposing to rule of global markets.

The following effects resulted from MNC's decision to move production to Asian nations:

  1. For MNCs, it offered an inexpensive source of labor.
  2. It boosted global trade and increased money inflow into Asian nations.
  3. The local people had a wider selection of goods and services and more options for employment.


4.) Give two examples from history to show the impact of technology on food availability.


1.) System Improvements: The food was transported safely and on time to the markets thanks to improved transportation methods. Moving food rapidly and affordably from distant farms to ultimate markets was made possible by faster railways, lighter carriages, and larger ships.

2.) Refrigerated Ships: With the development of refrigerated ships, perishable foods could be transported over long distances. Animals were killed for food in America, Australia, or New Zealand and shipped to Europe as frozen meat. As a result, shipping expenses dropped, and meat costs fell in Europe. The diet of the impoverished in Europe, which consisted mostly of bread and potatoes, could now include meat.


5.) What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement?


The post-war international economic system was created to ensure financial stability and full employment in the industrialized world. At Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA, in July 1944, the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held to carry out the same. The Bretton Woods Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to address external surpluses and shortages in its member countries. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (often referred to as the World Bank) was founded to finance post-war reconstruction. It began conducting financial transactions in 1947.

As part of the deal, currencies were tied to the price of gold, and the US dollar served as a reserve currency. The industrial powers of the West were granted the capacity to make decisions. Key IMF and World Bank decisions now fall under the US's veto power. On fixed exchange rates, the Bretton Woods System was built. For the Western industrial nations and Japan, the Bretton Woods System heralded a period of exceptional trade and economic prosperity.



6.) Imagine that you are indentured Indian labour in the Caribbean. Drawing from the details in the chapter, write a letter to your family describing your life and feelings.


Dear Ma and Pa,

My job as an indentured laborer in Jamaica is anything but simple. I wish to tell you about my life here with this letter.

When he hired me, the contractor was fairly tactful about the living and working arrangements. I want to avoid mentioning the job's nature and location.

With the contractor acting in a manner that is incredibly harsh by Caribbean standards, we have very few rights. He treats us like animals because we are the minority and, therefore, vulnerable to his fury. In Jamaican sugar farms, accidents frequently occur. I once witnessed him being burned alive when we were mistakenly spilling boiling liquid sugar on a worker. The contractor decided to fire him without paying him his money because he could not work due to third-degree burns. We lack the freedom to voice our opinions or let others know how we feel about the working environment. And if we do, the overseer will lash us.

I risk going to jail whenever I don't show up for work. At the plantations, there is a lot of work, a large workload, and insufficient time to complete everything.

My pay is reduced in the event of subpar work. If there is a hell on earth, this is it. Despite the pain my words will inflict on you. You can rest easy knowing that new laws are being discussed to safeguard workers like us. So, this circumstance will soon pass.


7.) Explain the three types of movements or flows within the international economic exchange. Find one example of each type of flow which involved India and Indians, and write a short account of it.


Trade flows, capital flows, and human capital flows are the three different motions or flow occurring within the global economic exchange. These can be clarified as international trade in agricultural goods, labor migration, and international lending.

1.) The flow of commerce (trade in goods, e.g., cloth or wheat):

In the pre-modern era, India was a major trading center where it exported textiles and spices in exchange for gold and silver from Europe.

India produced high-quality cotton that was exported to Europe. British cotton manufacturing grew due to industrialization, and businesspeople pushed the government to limit cotton imports and support domestic producers. The importation of quality Indian Cotton decreased due to the taxes on textile imports.

2.) The labor market (the migration of people in search of employment):

In the nineteenth century, an enormous amount of indentured labor was offered to companies, plantations, and mines abroad. The British used this as a tool to dominate the colonies. After serving five years on their employer's plantation, indentured laborers were hired by contacts who promised them a trip back to India. The working conditions were poor, and as they had few rights, the laborers had little protection from the law.

3.) The flow of capital (investments):

To finance the World War, Britain received significant loans from the USA. The effects of these loan debts were also felt in India because it was an English colony. The capital was needed to grow crops for the global market, including food. Banks and marketplaces might finance it for large plantations.


8.) Explain the causes of the Great Depression.


The Great Depression was a result of many factors. Some of them are as follows:

A significant issue in agriculture was overproduction. Price drops in agriculture were the outcome. Prices dropped along with agricultural incomes. The number of commodities on the market rose as a result. The market's status deteriorated. Prices kept dropping. Because there were no customers, farm products started to spoil.

The USA experienced prosperity throughout the 1920s, which led to an increase in employment and salaries. Consumption and demand increased as a result. The Great Depression of 1929 through the middle of the 1930s was caused by speculative inclinations sparked by increased investment and employment. 1929 saw a stock market collapse. Investors and depositors became fearful and ceased making deposits and investments. It thus started a cycle of depreciation.

The US withholding loans impacted the world in various ways. It resulted in the downfall of the principal banks in Europe and the devaluation of important currencies like the British pound sterling. Despite the dollar's declining value, several banks called back loans obtained from them at the same dollar rate. When clients withdrew their assets, some banks closed, making them unable to invest.


9.) Explain what is referred to as the G-77 countries. In what ways can G-77 be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods twins?


Many regions of the world remained under colonial administration after the Second World War. It took more than 20 years for the colonies in Asia and Africa to achieve freedom and independence. When they gained freedom, they encountered various new issues, including resource shortages and poverty. The long-term effects of colonial control on economies and cultures were negative.

Many of the world's less developed regions have been colonies of Western empires. The twin agreements at Bretton Woods favored Western industrialized nations more in their policy. Ironically, these newly independent nations are now governed by international organizations predominated by the old colonial powers while they face urgent demands to help their inhabitants escape poverty.

As a result, these colonies organized themselves into the Group of 77 (also known as the G-77) to seek a new global economic system (NIEO). They meant a system that would offer them actual control over their natural resources, more aid for development, more equitable prices for raw materials, and better access to the markets for their produced goods in richer nations.

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